Princess

Princess

[prin-sis, -ses, prin-ses]
Lieven, Dorothea, Princess, 1785-1857, Russian noblewoman; wife of the Russian ambassador to London (1812-34). After her husband's recall she settled in Paris. A brilliant personality, she was intimate with the great world of London and Paris, and her Paris salon acquired some note. Her friends included Metternich, Wellington, and Guizot. Her diary and much of her correspondence have been published in English.

European h1 of rank, usually denoting a person exercising complete or almost complete sovereignty or a member of a royal family. The wife of a prince is a princess. In Britain, the h1 was not used until 1301, when Edward I invested his son, the future Edward II, as prince of Wales. From Edward III's time, the king's (or queen's) eldest son and heir has usually been so invested.

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(born Dec. 17, 1619, Prague, Bohemia—died Nov. 29, 1682, London, Eng.) Royalist commander in the English Civil Wars. Son of the Palatine elector Frederick V and Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, Rupert became a favourite of his uncle, Charles I, whom he joined in England in 1642. In the English Civil Wars, he was given command of the cavalry and became known for his daring tactics in winning victories at Bristol (1643) and in Lancashire (1644). He met defeat at the Battle of Marston Moor but was appointed commander of the king's army. When he surrendered Bristol (1645), he was dismissed and then banished from England. He commanded a small Royalist fleet that preyed on English shipping (1648–50), then retired to Germany (1653–60). With the Restoration (1660), he was given naval commands in the Anglo-Dutch Wars. He was a founder and first governor of the Hudson's Bay Co.

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orig. Harold Smith Prince

(born Jan. 30, 1928, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. theatrical producer and director. He worked for the producer George Abbott before coproducing the successful musical The Pajama Game (1954). He went on to produce or coproduce over 30 hit musicals, including Damn Yankees (1955), West Side Story (1957), A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962), and Fiddler on the Roof (1964). Frequently working with Stephen Sondheim, he won Tony Awards for his direction of the musicals Cabaret (1966), Company (1970), Follies (1971), Candide (1974), Sweeney Todd (1979), Evita (1979), The Phantom of the Opera (1986), and Show Boat (1995).

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Inlet of the Gulf of Alaska, southern Alaska, U.S. It lies east of the Kenai Peninsula and spans 90–100 mi (145–160 km). It was named by the British captain George Vancouver in 1778 to honour a son of George III. In 1989 one of the largest oil spills in history occurred when the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef and lost 10.9 million gallons of crude oil into the sound, with disastrous effects on its ecology.

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Province (pop., 2006 est.: 135,851), Canada. One of the Maritime Provinces and Canada's smallest province, it is an island in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, separated from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick by the Northumberland Strait. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1534, it was used by Mi'kmaq (Micmac) Indians for fishing and hunting. It was colonized by the French in 1720, then ceded to the British in 1763. Known as the “Cradle of Confederation,” it was the site of the Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which led to the federation of Canada. It became a province in 1873. It has good natural harbours on its eastern and southern sides. There has been little industrial development, and more than half of the island is used for agriculture. Fishing and tourism are also of economic importance. In 1997 a bridge opened between Prince Edward Island and the mainland.

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Park, central Saskatchewan, Canada. Its main entrance is northwest of the city of Prince Albert. Established in 1927, it has an area of 1,496 sq mi (3,875 sq km) and is mostly woodland and lakes, interlaced with streams and nature trails. It is a sanctuary for birds, moose, elk, caribou, and bears.

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City (metro. area pop., 1997: 1,556,000), seaport, and capital of Haiti, West Indies, on the southeastern shore of the Golfe de la Gonâve. Founded by the French in 1749, it was destroyed by earthquakes in 1751 and 1770 and has frequently suffered from fires and civil strife. In 1807 the port was opened to foreign commerce. It is the country's principal port and commercial centre, producing sugar, flour, cottonseed oil, and textiles.

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orig. Harold Smith Prince

(born Jan. 30, 1928, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. theatrical producer and director. He worked for the producer George Abbott before coproducing the successful musical The Pajama Game (1954). He went on to produce or coproduce over 30 hit musicals, including Damn Yankees (1955), West Side Story (1957), A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962), and Fiddler on the Roof (1964). Frequently working with Stephen Sondheim, he won Tony Awards for his direction of the musicals Cabaret (1966), Company (1970), Follies (1971), Candide (1974), Sweeney Todd (1979), Evita (1979), The Phantom of the Opera (1986), and Show Boat (1995).

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(born June 15, 1330, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died June 8, 1376, Westminster, near London) Prince of Wales (1343–76). Son of Edward III, he apparently received his sobriquet because he wore black armour. He was one of the outstanding commanders of the Hundred Years' War, winning a major victory at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. He was prince of Aquitaine 1362–72; his rule there was a failure, for which he was largely to blame. He returned sick and broken to England and formally surrendered his principality to his father. He had no successor as prince of Aquitaine. Though the heir apparent, he never became king; his son became Richard II.

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(born April 1, 1815, Schönhausen, Altmark, Prussia—died July 30, 1898, Friedrichsruh, near Hamburg) Prussian statesman who founded the German Empire in 1871 and served as its chancellor for 19 years. Born into the Prussian landowning elite, Bismarck studied law and was elected to the Prussian Diet in 1849. In 1851 he was appointed Prussian representative to the federal Diet in Frankfurt. After serving as ambassador to Russia (1859–62) and France (1862), he became prime minister and foreign minister of Prussia (1862–71). When he took office, Prussia was widely considered the weakest of the five European powers, but under his leadership Prussia won a war against Denmark in 1864 (see Schleswig-Holstein Question), the Seven Weeks' War (1866), and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71). Through these wars he achieved his goal of political unification of a Prussian-dominated German Empire. Once the empire was established, he became its chancellor. The “Iron Chancellor” skillfully preserved the peace in Europe through alliances against France (see Three Emperors' League; Reinsurance Treaty; Triple Alliance). Domestically, he introduced administrative and economic reforms but sought to preserve the status quo, opposing the Social Democratic Party and the Catholic church (see Kulturkampf). When Bismarck left office in 1890, the map of Europe had been changed immeasurably. However, the German Empire, his greatest achievement, survived him by only 20 years because he had failed to create an internally unified people.

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Princess is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince, or her daughters, women whose station in life depended on their relationship to a prince and who could be disowned and stripped of the title if he so chose.

For many centuries, the title "princess" was not regularly used for a monarch's daughter, who might simply be called "Lady" or a non-English equivalent; Old English had no female equivalent to "prince", "earl", or any royal or noble aside from the queen, and the women of nobility bore the title of "Lady".

As women have slowly gained more autonomy through European history, the title of princess has become simply the female counterpart of prince and does not necessarily imply being controlled or owned by a prince. In some cases then, a princess is the female hereditary head of state of a province or other significant area in her own right. The ancient meaning applies in Europe still to the extent that a female commoner who marries a prince will almost always become a princess, but a male commoner who marries a princess will almost never become a prince, unless his wife has, or is expected to attain, a higher title, such as Queen regnant. The implication is that if the man held the equivalent masculine title, he would have rank over his wife without the necessary pedigree.

In many of Europe's royal families, a king would grant his heirs actual or theoretical principalities to train them for future kingship or to give them social rank. This practice has led over time to many people thinking that "prince" and "princess" are titles reserved for the immediate family of a king or queen. In fact, most princesses in history were not immediate members of a royal family but women who married into it; however, in many cases, a princess would choose someone outside of royalty to wed.

Present day princesses











Note: Although Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and India are Republics following the abolition of their Monarchies, these titles are granted as courtesy.

Other uses of the term

Widely used as a term of endearment, "princess" has also devolved in mostly American usage to mean any woman of exceptional popularity, such as the "princesses" of high school prom courts and beauty pageants. The term can also be used disparagingly to refer to a young woman or girl perceived of as being vain or spoiled. Another variation is "Jewish Princess" which focuses on affluent, free-spending, suburban Jewish women.

Yet another take on the rising popularity of being a "princess" is the gentleness and refined composure associated with the title. It often conjures images of elegance and self-control, and among the younger generations, is a depiction of all things feminine and lovely. In popular culture, the stereotypically ideal relationship between parents and a daughter consists of the mother and father considering their daughter to be their own "little princess." A fictional princess typically wears a pink princess gown with ballroom shoes or in other colors.

See also

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