Setting of government guidelines to limit increases in wages and prices. It is one of the most extreme approaches to incomes policy. By controlling wages and prices, governments hope to control inflation and prevent extremes in the business cycle. Countries with highly centralized methods of setting wages tend to have the greatest degree of public or collective regulation of wage and price levels. For example, wage settlements in The Netherlands must be approved by the government, and price increases are investigated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. Other countries, including the U.S., have also made efforts at restraining wage and price increases, usually seeking the voluntary cooperation of management and labour. In the U.S., wage-price controls were instituted by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II and by Pres. Richard M. Nixon in the early 1970s, when high inflation combined with rising unemployment to create instability.
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Measures taken by manufacturers or distributors to control the resale prices of their products (i.e., the prices charged by businesses that resell them). Such measures have been applied to a limited array of goods, including pharmaceuticals, books, photographic supplies, and liquor. Resale price maintenance first began to be employed in the 1880s, reflecting the success of brand promotion and the resulting increase in competition among retailers. It became especially common in the U.S. but declined after World War II. It is prohibited in some countries. The complexity of marketing channels in industrialized countries makes it increasingly difficult for manufacturers to establish and enforce a single price or even a minimum price for their goods. Seealso fair trade law.
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Measure of change in a set of prices, consisting of a series of numbers arranged so that a comparison of the values for any two periods or places will show the change in prices between periods or the difference in prices between places. Price indexes were first developed to measure changes in the cost of living in order to determine the wage increases necessary to maintain a constant standard of living. There are two basic types. Laspeyres-type indexes define a market basket of goods in a base period, then use the prices for those goods to examine change over space and time. In its simplest form, this is simply the ratio of what those goods cost today to what they cost in the base period. The two most familiar indexes of this type are the consumer price index (CPI) and the producer price index (PPI). The CPI measures changes in retail prices in such component parts as food, clothing, and shelter. The PPI (formerly called the wholesale price index) measures changes in the prices charged by manufacturers and wholesalers. Paasche-type indexes define a market basket of goods in the current period, then use the prices of those goods from past periods. The most familiar index of this type is the GDP deflator, used in the U.S. in the national income accounting to differentiate amounts in constant dollars from those in current dollars.
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Practice of selling goods or services at different prices to different buyers, even though sales costs are the same for all the transactions. Buyers may be discriminated against on the basis of income, ethnicity, age, or geographic location. For price discrimination to succeed, other entrepreneurs must be unable to purchase goods at the lower price and resell them at a higher one.
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Amount of money that has to be paid to acquire a given good, service, or resource. Operating as a measure of value, prices perform a significant economic function, distributing the scarce supply of goods, services, and resources to those who most want them through the adjustments of supply and demand. Prices of resources are called wages, interest, and rent. This system, known as the price mechanism, is based on the principle that only by allowing prices to move freely will the supply of any given commodity match demand. If supply is excessive, prices will be low and production will be reduced; this will cause prices to rise until there is a balance of demand and supply. If supply is inadequate, prices will be high, prompting an increase in production that in turn will lead to a reduction in prices until supply and demand are in equilibrium. A totally free price mechanism does not exist in practice; even in free-market economies, monopolies or government regulation may limit the efficiency of price as a determinant of supply and demand. In centrally planned economies, the price mechanism may be supplanted by centralized government control. Attempts to operate an economy without a price mechanism usually result in surpluses of unwanted goods, shortages of desired products, black markets, and stunted economic growth.
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Measure of living costs based on changes in retail prices. Consumer price indexes are widely used to measure changes in the cost of maintaining a given standard of living. The goods and services commonly purchased by the population covered are priced periodically, and their prices are combined in proportion to their relative importance. This set of prices is compared with the initial set of prices collected in the base year to determine the percentage increase or decrease. The population covered may be restricted to wage and salary earners or to city dwellers, and special indexes may be used for special population groups (e.g., retirees). Such indexes do not take into account shifts over time in what the population buys; when modified to take subjective preferences into account, they are called constant-utility indexes. Consumer price indexes are available for more than 100 countries.
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(born Feb. 10, 1927, Laurel, Miss., U.S.) U.S. soprano. She was trained at the Juilliard School. After her debut in a revival of Four Saints in Three Acts in 1952, she made her name in the international tour of Porgy and Bess (1953–55). She sang in Aïda at Milan's La Scala in 1960 and made her Metropolitan Opera debut in 1961. Price was one of the Met's most popular stars for more than two decades and was the first African American singer to achieve an international reputation in opera. She gave her farewell performance of Aïda at the Met in 1985 but continued to give recitals.
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In economics, the practice of setting a product's price equal to the additional (marginal) cost of producing one more unit of output. The producer charges an amount equal to the cost of the additional economic resources. The policy is used to maintain a low selling price or to keep a business operating during a period of poor sales. Because fixed costs such as rent and building maintenance must be paid whether a company produces or not, a firm experiencing temporary difficulties may decide to remain in production and sell the product at marginal cost, since its losses will be no greater than if it ceased production.
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Process of determining what a company will receive in exchange for its products. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost,market place,competition,maket condition,Quality of product.
From the marketers point of view, an efficient price is a price that is very close to the maximum that customers are prepared to pay. In economic terms, it is a price that shifts most of the consumer surplus to the producer. A good pricing strategy would be the one which could balance between the Price floor(the price below which the organization ends up in losses) and the Price ceiling(the price beyond which the organization experiences a no demand situation).
Price lining is the use of a limited number of prices for all your product offerings. This is a tradition started in the old five and dime stores in which everything cost either 5 or 10 cents. Its underlying rationale is that these amounts are seen as suitable price points for a whole range of products by prospective customers. It has the advantage of ease of administering, but the disadvantage of inflexibility, particularly in times of inflation or unstable prices.
A loss leader is a product that has a price set below the operating margin. This results in a loss to the enterprise on that particular item, but this is done in the hope that it will draw customers into the store and that some of those customers will buy other, higher margin items.
Promotional pricing refers to an instance where pricing is the key element of the marketing mix.
The price/quality relationship refers to the perception by most consumers that a relatively high price is a sign of good quality. The belief in this relationship is most important with complex products that are hard to test, and experiential products that cannot be tested until used (such as most services). The greater the uncertainty surrounding a product, the more consumers depend on the price/quality hypothesis and the more of a premium they are prepared to pay. The classic example of this is the pricing of the snack cake Twinkies, which were perceived as low quality when the price was lowered. Note, however, that excessive reliance on the price/quantity relationship by consumers may lead to the raising of prices on all products and services, even those of low quality, which in turn causes the price/quality relationship to no longer apply.
Premium pricing (also called prestige pricing) is the strategy of consistently pricing at, or near, the high end of the possible price range to help attract status-conscious consumers. A few examples of companies which partake in premium pricing in the marketplace include Rolex and Bentley. People will buy a premium priced product because:
The term Goldilocks pricing is commonly used to describe the practice of providing a "gold-plated" version of a product at a premium price in order to make the next-lower priced option look more reasonably priced; for example, encouraging customers to see business-class airline seats as good value for money by offering an even higher priced first-class option. Similarly, third-class railway carriages in Victorian England are said to have been built without windows, not so much to punish third-class customers (for which there was no economic incentive), as to motivate those who could afford second-class seats to pay for them instead of taking the cheaper option. This is also known as a potential result of price discrimination.
The name derives from the Goldilocks story, in which Goldilocks chose neither the hottest nor the coldest porridge, but instead the one that was "just right". More technically, this form of pricing exploits the general cognitive bias of aversion to extremes. This practice is known academically as "framing". By providing three options (i.e. small, medium, and large; first, business, and coach classes) you can manipulate the consumer into choosing the middle choice and thus, the middle choice should yield the most profit to the seller, since it is the most chosen option.
Demand-based pricing is any pricing method that uses consumer demand - based on perceived value - as the central element. These include : price skimming, price discrimination and yield management, price points, psychological pricing, bundle pricing, penetration pricing, price lining, value-based pricing, geo and premium pricing. Pricing factors are manufacturing cost,market place,compitition,maket condition,Quality of product.
Multidimensional pricing is the pricing of a product or service using multiple numbers. In this practice, price no longer consists of a single monetary amount (e.g., sticker price of a car), but rather consists of various dimensions (e.g., monthly payments, number of payments, and a downpayment). Research has shown that this practice can significantly influence consumers' ability to understand and process price information
Pricing at the industry level focuses on the overall economics of the industry, including supplier price changes and customer demand changes.
Pricing at the market level focuses on the competitive position of the price in comparison to the value differential of the product to that of comparative competing products.
Pricing at the transaction level focuses on managing the implementation of discounts away from the reference, or list price, which occur both on and off the invoice or receipt.
Pricing power: using price strategy road maps and tools to maximize bottom-line results: CMAs are trained to achieve best-in-class practices that strive for continuous improvements in profitability, cost management, and efficiency. And yet, when it comes to pricing, many organizations fail to use the tools and processes that enable a best-in-class approach.(Company overview)
May 01, 2008; More often than not, anecdotes and "gut feel" remain the key drivers for pricing decisions. Consequently, organizations...