premier

premier

[pri-meer, -myeer, pree-meer]
premier: see prime minister.
or premier

Head of government in countries with a parliamentary (see parliamentary democracy) or semipresidential system of government. The prime minister is the leader of the political party or coalition with a governing majority and is formally appointed by the head of state. Although the origin of the h1 lies in 17th-century France, where the cardinal de Richelieu was acknowledged in 1624 as principal or premier ministre, the office essentially developed in Britain in the 18th century. Robert Walpole (1721–42) is generally considered the first British prime minister; the powers of the office were consolidated by William Pitt the Younger. The British prime ministry has served as a model for the heads of government in many Commonwealth countries, Europe, and Japan. The prime minister has appointive powers and is responsible for the government's legislative program, budget, and other policies. His term of office lasts until the next scheduled election or until he loses legislative support. In France and Russia, which have semipresidential systems with both a president and a prime minister, the president wields greater power but the prime minister controls the domestic legislative agenda. Seealso chancellor.

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A premier is a title for the head of government in some countries.

In many nations, the title "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister": for example, the "Italian Premier" is the same person as the "Italian President of the Council of Ministers". In the People's Republic of China, "premier" is more common, but "prime minister" is still used (see Premier of the People's Republic of China).

In Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, both British overseas territories, their elected head of government is called the "premier". In other overseas territories, elected heads are called the chief minister. In the Cayman Islands, this position is known as the Leader of Government Business.

"Premier" is also the title of the heads of government in sub-national entities, such as the provinces and territories of Canada, states of the Commonwealth of Australia, provinces of South Africa, the island of Nevis within the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, and the nation of Niue. In some of these cases, the formal title remains "Prime Minister" but "Premier" is used to avoid confusion with the national leader. In these cases, care should be taken not to confuse the title of "premier" with "prime minister". In these countries, terms such as "Federal Premier" or "National Premier" were sometimes used to refer to prime ministers, although these are now obsolete. In Canadian French, the equivalent of the English word "premier" is "premier ministre", which is also the word used for "prime minister".

In the Czech Republic, "Premiér" means the "Prime Minister" and the Czech language translates both "Premier" and "Prime Minister" as "Premiér".

In Croatia, the head of government is officially called "President of the Government" (predsjednik vlade) or "Minister President" (ministar predsjednik), but "Premier" (premijer) is commonly used.

A premier will normally be a head of government, but is not usually the head of state. In presidential systems, the two roles are often combined into one, whereas in parliamentary systems of government the two are usually kept separate. An example of a nation having separate roles for the premier/prime minister and the president is the Fifth French Republic.

In the Soviet Union, the title of premier was applied to the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars or, after 1946, to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.

In Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, both British overseas territories, their elected head of government is called the "premier". In other overseas territories, elected heads are called the chief minister. In the Cayman Islands, this position is known as the Leader of Government Business.

A second in command to a premier is designated as a vice-premier or deputy premier.

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