Definitions

Pope

Pope

[pohp]
Pope, Alexander, 1688-1744, English poet. Although his literary reputation declined somewhat during the 19th cent., he is now recognized as the greatest poet of the 18th cent. and the greatest verse satirist in English.

Life

Pope was born in London of Roman Catholic parents and moved to Binfield in 1700. During his later childhood he was afflicted by a tubercular condition known as Pott's disease that ruined his health and produced a pronounced spinal curvature. He never grew taller than 4 ft 6 in. (1.4 m). His religion debarred him from a Protestant education and from the age of 12 he was almost entirely self-taught.

Although he is known for his literary quarrels, Pope never lacked close friends. In his early years he won the attention of William Wycherley and the poet-critic William Walsh, among others. Before he was 17 Pope was admitted to London society and encouraged as a prodigy. The shortest lived of his friendships was with Joseph Addison and his coterie, who eventually insidiously attacked Pope's Tory leanings. His attachment to the Tory party was strengthened by his warm friendship with Swift and his involvement with the Scriblerus Club.

Works

Pope's poetry basically falls into three periods. The first includes the early descriptive poetry; the Pastorals (1709); Windsor Forest (1713); the Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem written in heroic couplets outlining critical tastes and standards; The Rape of the Lock (1714), a mock-heroic poem ridiculing the fashionable world of his day; contributions to the Guardian; and "Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady" and "Eloise to Abelard," the only pieces he ever wrote dealing with love. In about 1717 Pope formed attachments to Martha Blount, a relationship that lasted his entire life, and to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, with whom he later quarreled bitterly.

Pope's second period includes his magnificent, if somewhat inaccurate, translations of Homer, written in heroic couplets; the completed edition of the Iliad (1720); and the Odyssey (1725-26), written with William Broome and Elijah Fenton. These translations, along with Pope's unsatisfactory edition of Shakespeare (1725), amassed him a large fortune. In 1719 he bought a lease on a house in Twickenham where he and his mother lived for the rest of their lives.

In the last period of his career Pope turned to writing satires and moral poems. These include The Dunciad (1728-43), a scathing satire on dunces and literary hacks in which Pope viciously attacked his enemies, including Lewis Theobald, the critic who had ridiculed Pope's edition of Shakespeare, and the playwright Colley Cibber; Imitations of Horace (1733-38), satirizing social follies and political corruption; An Essay on Man (1734), a poetic summary of current philosophical speculation, his most ambitious work; Moral Essays (1731-35); and the "Epistle to Arbuthnot" (1735), a defense in poetry of his life and his work.

Bibliography

See the Twickenham edition of his poems (7 vol., 1951-61); his prose works ed. by N. Ault (1936, repr. 1968); his letters ed. by G. Sherburn (5 vol., 1956); biographies by G. Sherburn (1934, repr. 1963), N. Ault (1949, repr. 1967), P. Quennell (1968), and M. Maynard (1988); studies by G. Tillotson (1946; 2d ed. 1950; and 1958), F. W. Bateson and N. A. Joukovsky, ed. (1972), J. P. Russo (1972), P. Dixon, ed. (1973), F. M. Keener (1974), D. B. Morris (1984), L. Damrosch, Jr. (1987), and R. A. Brower (1986).

Pope, John, 1822-92, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Louisville, Ky. He fought with distinction at Monterrey and Buena Vista in the Mexican War and later served with the topographical engineers in the West. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Pope was made a brigadier general of volunteers. He served in Missouri under John C. Frémont and then under Henry W. Halleck. He was promoted to major general in Mar., 1862. As commander of the Army of the Mississippi, Pope captured New Madrid and Island No. 10 and took part in Halleck's move on Corinth. These successes brought him the command of the newly organized Army of Virginia (June, 1862) and a brigadier generalcy in the regular army. He attributed his bad defeat at the second battle of Bull Run to alleged disobedience on the part of Fitz-John Porter. Removed from command, Pope later campaigned against the Sioux. He commanded (1870-83) the Dept. of the Missouri.

See study by R. N. Ellis (1970).

Pope, John Russell, 1874-1937, American architect, b. New York City, studied at the College of the City of New York and the School of Mines, Columbia (Ph.B., 1894). He won a fellowship (1895) to the American Academy in Rome. Pope's firm, established in New York City in 1900, consistently produced dignified architecture of classical inspiration. His designs include a long list of town and country residences. His public works at Washington, D.C., include the Scottish Rite Temple, the National Archives Building, Constitution Hall for the Daughters of the American Revolution, and the National Gallery of Art.

See study by S. M. Bedford (1998).

Ecclesiastical h1 of the bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic church. In the early church, especially in the 3rd–5th century, it was a h1 of affectionate respect for any bishop. It is still used for the Eastern Orthodox patriarch of Alexandria and for Orthodox priests, but around the 9th century it came to be reserved in the West exclusively for the bishop of Rome. Catholic doctrine regards the pope as the successor of St. Peter the Apostle and accords him supreme jurisdiction over the church in matters of faith and morals, as well as in church discipline and government. Papal infallibility in matters of doctrine was asserted by the First Vatican Council in 1870. Seealso papacy, Roman Catholicism.

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John Pope

(born March 16, 1822, Louisville, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 23, 1892, Sandusky, Ohio) U.S. army officer. A graduate of West Point, he served in the Mexican War. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers, and he commanded operations that secured Union navigation of the Mississippi River almost to Memphis. In 1862 he was given command of the Army of Virginia. At the Second Battle of Bull Run, his forces were defeated. Though he tried to blame the rout on his subordinates, including Fitz-John Porter, he was relieved of his command and sent to Minnesota to quell a Sioux uprising. After the war he commanded the Department of the Missouri (1870–83).

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Alexander Pope, portrait by Thomas Hudson; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born May 21, 1688, London, Eng.—died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London) English poet and satirist. A precocious boy precluded from formal education by his Roman Catholicism, Pope was mainly self-educated. A deformity of the spine and other health problems limited his growth and physical activities, leading him to devote himself to reading and writing. His first major work was An Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem on the art of writing that contains several brilliant epigrams (e.g., “To err is human, to forgive, divine”). His witty mock-epic The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) ridicules fashionable society. The great labour of his life was his verse translation of Homer's Iliad (1720) and Odyssey (1726), whose success made him financially secure. He became involved in many literary battles, prompting him to write poems such as the scathing mock-epic The Dunciad (1728) and An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (1735). The philosophical An Essay on Man (1733–34) was intended as part of a larger work that he never completed.

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Legendary female pontiff who supposedly reigned, as Pope John VIII, for about 25 months from 855 to 858. The tale held that she was an Englishwoman who fell in love with a Benedictine monk, disguised herself as a man, and joined his order. After acquiring great learning she moved to Rome, where she became cardinal and then pope. In the earliest version of the story, she was pregnant at the time of her election and gave birth during the procession to the Lateran, whereupon she was dragged out of Rome and stoned to death. The legend, regarded as fact until the 17th century, has since been proved to be apocryphal.

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John Pope

(born March 16, 1822, Louisville, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 23, 1892, Sandusky, Ohio) U.S. army officer. A graduate of West Point, he served in the Mexican War. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers, and he commanded operations that secured Union navigation of the Mississippi River almost to Memphis. In 1862 he was given command of the Army of Virginia. At the Second Battle of Bull Run, his forces were defeated. Though he tried to blame the rout on his subordinates, including Fitz-John Porter, he was relieved of his command and sent to Minnesota to quell a Sioux uprising. After the war he commanded the Department of the Missouri (1870–83).

Learn more about Pope, John with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Legendary female pontiff who supposedly reigned, as Pope John VIII, for about 25 months from 855 to 858. The tale held that she was an Englishwoman who fell in love with a Benedictine monk, disguised herself as a man, and joined his order. After acquiring great learning she moved to Rome, where she became cardinal and then pope. In the earliest version of the story, she was pregnant at the time of her election and gave birth during the procession to the Lateran, whereupon she was dragged out of Rome and stoned to death. The legend, regarded as fact until the 17th century, has since been proved to be apocryphal.

Learn more about Joan, Pope with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alexander Pope, portrait by Thomas Hudson; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born May 21, 1688, London, Eng.—died May 30, 1744, Twickenham, near London) English poet and satirist. A precocious boy precluded from formal education by his Roman Catholicism, Pope was mainly self-educated. A deformity of the spine and other health problems limited his growth and physical activities, leading him to devote himself to reading and writing. His first major work was An Essay on Criticism (1711), a poem on the art of writing that contains several brilliant epigrams (e.g., “To err is human, to forgive, divine”). His witty mock-epic The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714) ridicules fashionable society. The great labour of his life was his verse translation of Homer's Iliad (1720) and Odyssey (1726), whose success made him financially secure. He became involved in many literary battles, prompting him to write poems such as the scathing mock-epic The Dunciad (1728) and An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (1735). The philosophical An Essay on Man (1733–34) was intended as part of a larger work that he never completed.

Learn more about Pope, Alexander with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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