Pollock

Pollock

[pol-uhk]
Pollock, Sir Frederick, 1845-1937, English jurist, b. London. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge and was admitted to the bar in 1871. He succeeded to his baronetcy in 1888. Pollock was (1883-1903) professor of jurisprudence at Oxford. He devoted himself to legal study and writing; after 1914, however, he was judge of the admiralty court of the Cinque Ports. Some of his books, including The Principles of Contract (1876) and the Law of Torts (1887), have been frequently republished. Pollock was editor (1885-1919) of the Law Quarterly Review, a major British legal periodical, and editor in chief (1895-1935) of the Law Reports, the chief medium for publishing decisions of the British courts. He collaborated with F. W. Maitland on The History of English Law (1895), contributing the material on Anglo-Saxon law. He wrote monographs on Spinoza (1880, 1935); Leading Cases Done into English (1876), a parody of legal style; and his reminiscences, For My Grandson (1933). His correspondence with Oliver Wendell Holmes was published as The Holmes-Pollock Letters (1941).

See studies by H. D. Hazeltine (1953) and C. H. Fifoot (1971).

Pollock, Jackson, 1912-56, American painter, b. Cody, Wyo. He studied (1929-31) in New York City, mainly under Thomas Hart Benton, but he was more strongly influenced by A. P. Ryder and the Mexican muralists, especially Siqueiros. From 1938 to 1942, Pollock worked on the Federal Art Project in New York City. Affected by surrealism and also by Picasso, he moved toward a highly abstract art in order to express, rather than illustrate, feeling. His experimentations led to the development of his famous "drip" technique, in which he energetically drew or "dripped" complicated linear rhythms onto enormous canvases, which were often placed flat on the floor. He sometimes applied paint directly from the tube, and at times also used aluminum paint to achieve a glittery effect. His vigorous attack on the canvas and intense devotion to the very act of painting led to the term "action painting." Pollock had become a symbol of the new artistic revolt, abstract expressionism, by the time he was killed in an automobile accident. His paintings are in many major collections, including museums in New York City, San Francisco, Dallas, and Chicago. Pollock was married to the painter Lee Krasner.

See H. Harrison, ed., Such Desperate Joy: Imagining Jackson Pollock (2001) and P. Karmel, ed., Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews, Articles, and Reviews (2002); catalogue raisonné, 4 vol., ed. by F. V. O'Connor and E. B. Thaw (1978, supplement 1995) and catalog ed. by K. Varnedoe and P. Karmel (1998); B. H. Friedman, Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible (1972, repr. 1995); D. Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography (1987); S. Naifeh and G. W. Smith, Jackson Pollock: An American Genius (1988); E. G. Landau, Jackson Pollock (1989); C. Ratcliff, The Fate of a Gesture: Jackson Pollock and Post-War American Art (1996).

Pollock, Oliver, 1737-1823, American merchant, b. Ireland. He arrived in America at the age of 23 and became a successful merchant. After moving to New Orleans, Pollock speculated advantageously in land and in the slave trade and gained the confidence of the Spanish government. He contributed generously to the cause of the colonies in the American Revolution, obtained supplies from the Spanish, and helped finance George Rogers Clark's conquest of the Northwest. After the war the American government met its debts to him, but repayment was tardy and incomplete.

See biography by J. A. James (1937, repr. 1970).

or pollock

Either of two commercially important North Atlantic species of food fish in the cod family (Gadidae). Pollachius (or Gadus) virens, called saithe or coalfish in Europe, is deep green with a pale belly. It has a small chin barbel (fleshy protuberance) and three dorsal and two anal fins. A carnivorous, lively, usually schooling fish, it grows to about 3.5 ft (1.1 m) long and weighs up to 35 lbs (16 kg). The other species, Theragra chalcogramma, or walleye pollack, closely resembles P. virens.

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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.

(born Jan. 28, 1912, Cody, Wyo., U.S.—died Aug. 11, 1956, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He grew up in California and Arizona. In the early 1930s he studied in New York City under Thomas Hart Benton, and later he was employed on the WPA Federal Art Project. In 1945 he married the artist Lee Krasner. Two years later, after several years of semiabstract work stimulated by psychotherapy, Pollock began to lay his canvas on the floor and pour or drip paint onto it in stages. This process permitted him to record the force and scope of his gestures in trajectories of enamel or aluminum paint that “veiled” the figurative elements found in his earlier work. The results were huge areas covered with complex and dynamic linear patterns that fuse image and form and engulf the vision of the spectator in their scale and intricacy. Pollock believed that art derived from the unconscious and judged his work and that of others on its inherent authenticity of personal expression. He became known as a leading practitioner of Abstract Expressionism, particularly the form known as action painting. Championed by critic Clement Greenberg and others, he became a celebrity. When he died in a car crash at 44, he was one of the few American painters to be recognized during his lifetime and afterward as the peer of 20th-century European masters of modern art.

Learn more about Pollock, (Paul) Jackson with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. Both P. pollachius and P. virens are commonly referred to as pollock. Other names for P. pollachius include the Atlantic pollock, European pollock, lieu jaune, lythe, and pollock; while P. virens is sometimes known as Boston blues (separate from bluefish), coalfish (or coley) or saithe.

Both species can grow to 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m) and can weigh up to 46 lb (21 kg). The fish has a strongly-defined silvery lateral line running down the sides. Above the lateral line the color is a greenish black. The belly is white. It can be found in water up to 100 fathoms (180 m) deep over rocks, and anywhere in the water column. They have a range from North Carolina up to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Pollock are a "white fish". They are an important part of the New England and North Atlantic fisheries, though less so than cod and haddock. They spawn in late winter and early spring on Georges Bank, off the New England coast.

There are also members of the Theragra genus that are commonly referred to as pollock. This includes the Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and the rarer Norwegian pollock (Theragra finnmarchica). While related (they are also members of the family Gadidae) to the above pollock species, they are not members of the Pollachius genus. Alaska pollock generally spawn in late winter and early spring on Southeast Bering Sea. The Alaskan pollock fishery in the Bering Sea fishery is the largest single-species food fish fishery in the world.

Fisheries

Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is the largest food fish resource in the world. More than 3 million tons of Alaska pollock are caught each year in the North Pacific from Alaska to northern Japan. Alaska pollock catches from U.S. fisheries have been quite consistent at about 1.5 million tons a year, almost all of it from the Bering Sea.

The Alaskan pollock is said to be "the largest remaining source of palatable fish in the world.. However, the biomass of pollock has declined in recent years, perhaps spelling trouble for both the Bering Sea ecosystem and the commercial fishery it supports.

Cuisine

Atlantic pollock is largely considered to be a white fish, although it is a fairly strongly flavored one. Although traditionally a popular source of food in some countries like Norway, in the United Kingdom it has previously been largely consumed as an economic and versatile alternative to cod and haddock in the West Country, elsewhere being known mostly for its traditional use as "Pollack for puss / coley for the cat." However, in recent years pollock has become more popular due to over-fishing of cod and haddock. It can now be found in most supermarkets as fresh fillets or pre-prepared freezer items.

Because of its slightly gray color pollock is often prepared, as in Norway, as fried fish balls or if juvenile sized maybe breaded with oatmeal and fried as in Shetland. Year old fish are traditionally split, salted and dried over a peat hearth in Orkney where their texture becomes wooden and somewhat phosphorescent. The fish can also be salted and smoked and achieve a salmon like orange color (although it is not closely related to the salmon), as is the case in Germany where the fish is commonly sold as Seelachs or sea salmon.

Alaskan pollock has a much milder taste, whiter color and lower oil content. High quality, single frozen whole Alaskan pollock fillets may be layered into a block mold and deep frozen to produce fish blocks that are used throughout Europe and North America as the raw material for high quality breaded and battered fish products. Lower quality, double-frozen fillets or minced trim pieces may also be frozen in block forms and used as raw material for lower quality, low-cost breaded and battered fish sticks, portions, etc.

Single frozen Alaskan Pollock is considered to be the premier raw material for surimi; the most common use of surimi in the United States is "imitation crabmeat" (also known as crab stick).

Alaskan pollock is commonly used in the fast food industry, for example the fish filet of Dairy Queen, Arby's, and Burger King are also made from Alaskan pollock. As stated on the packaging of the product, McDonald's uses Hoki and/or pollock in their Filet-O-Fish sandwich.

Pollock Stew (hangul:속초생태) - prepared with gochujang, garlic, bean sprouts is a popular winter dish in South Korea.

Notes

Nicknamed "Polka Fish of the Sea" by Polish oceanographer Andrew Suchon.

References

  • Davidson, Alan. Oxford Companion to Food (1999), “Saithe”, p. 682. ISBN 0-19-211579-0

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