See studies by H. D. Hazeltine (1953) and C. H. Fifoot (1971).
See H. Harrison, ed., Such Desperate Joy: Imagining Jackson Pollock (2001) and P. Karmel, ed., Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews, Articles, and Reviews (2002); catalogue raisonné, 4 vol., ed. by F. V. O'Connor and E. B. Thaw (1978, supplement 1995) and catalog ed. by K. Varnedoe and P. Karmel (1998); B. H. Friedman, Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible (1972, repr. 1995); D. Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography (1987); S. Naifeh and G. W. Smith, Jackson Pollock: An American Genius (1988); E. G. Landau, Jackson Pollock (1989); C. Ratcliff, The Fate of a Gesture: Jackson Pollock and Post-War American Art (1996).
See biography by J. A. James (1937, repr. 1970).
Either of two commercially important North Atlantic species of food fish in the cod family (Gadidae). Pollachius (or Gadus) virens, called saithe or coalfish in Europe, is deep green with a pale belly. It has a small chin barbel (fleshy protuberance) and three dorsal and two anal fins. A carnivorous, lively, usually schooling fish, it grows to about 3.5 ft (1.1 m) long and weighs up to 35 lbs (16 kg). The other species, Theragra chalcogramma, or walleye pollack, closely resembles P. virens.
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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.
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Both species can grow to 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m) and can weigh up to 46 lb (21 kg). The fish has a strongly-defined silvery lateral line running down the sides. Above the lateral line the color is a greenish black. The belly is white. It can be found in water up to 100 fathoms (180 m) deep over rocks, and anywhere in the water column. They have a range from North Carolina up to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Pollock are a "white fish". They are an important part of the New England and North Atlantic fisheries, though less so than cod and haddock. They spawn in late winter and early spring on Georges Bank, off the New England coast.
There are also members of the Theragra genus that are commonly referred to as pollock. This includes the Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and the rarer Norwegian pollock (Theragra finnmarchica). While related (they are also members of the family Gadidae) to the above pollock species, they are not members of the Pollachius genus. Alaska pollock generally spawn in late winter and early spring on Southeast Bering Sea. The Alaskan pollock fishery in the Bering Sea fishery is the largest single-species food fish fishery in the world.
The Alaskan pollock is said to be "the largest remaining source of palatable fish in the world.. However, the biomass of pollock has declined in recent years, perhaps spelling trouble for both the Bering Sea ecosystem and the commercial fishery it supports.
Because of its slightly gray color pollock is often prepared, as in Norway, as fried fish balls or if juvenile sized maybe breaded with oatmeal and fried as in Shetland. Year old fish are traditionally split, salted and dried over a peat hearth in Orkney where their texture becomes wooden and somewhat phosphorescent. The fish can also be salted and smoked and achieve a salmon like orange color (although it is not closely related to the salmon), as is the case in Germany where the fish is commonly sold as Seelachs or sea salmon.
Alaskan pollock has a much milder taste, whiter color and lower oil content. High quality, single frozen whole Alaskan pollock fillets may be layered into a block mold and deep frozen to produce fish blocks that are used throughout Europe and North America as the raw material for high quality breaded and battered fish products. Lower quality, double-frozen fillets or minced trim pieces may also be frozen in block forms and used as raw material for lower quality, low-cost breaded and battered fish sticks, portions, etc.
Alaskan pollock is commonly used in the fast food industry, for example the fish filet of Dairy Queen, Arby's, and Burger King are also made from Alaskan pollock. As stated on the packaging of the product, McDonald's uses Hoki and/or pollock in their Filet-O-Fish sandwich.
Nicknamed "Polka Fish of the Sea" by Polish oceanographer Andrew Suchon.