|Abbr.||Political Leader||International Affliation||Votes (2006)||Tweede|
|Christian Democratic Appeal||Christen-Democratisch Appel||CDA||Jan Peter Balkenende*||Centrist Democrat International||2,608,573||41||21||7|
|Labour Party||Partij van de Arbeid||PvdA||Wouter Bos*||Socialist International||2,085,077||33||14||7|
|Socialist Party||Socialistische Partij||SP||Agnes Kant||UEL/NGL||1,630,803||25||11||2|
|People's Party for Freedom and Democracy||Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie||VVD||Mark Rutte||Liberal International||1,443,312||21||14||4|
|Party for Freedom||Partij voor de Vrijheid||PVV||Geert Wilders||none||579,490||9||0||0|
|GreenLeft||GroenLinks||GL||Femke Halsema||Global Greens||453,054||7||4||2|
|ChristianUnion||ChristenUnie||CU||André Rouvoet*||European Christian Political Movement||390,969||6||4||1|
|Democrats 66||Democraten 66||D66||Alexander Pechtold||Liberal International||193,232||3||2||1|
|Party for Animals||Partij voor de Dieren||PvdD||Marianne Thieme||none||179,988||2||1||0|
|Political Reformed Party||Staatskundig Gereformeerde Partij||SGP||Bas van der Vlies||ID||153,266||2||1||1|
|Independents Senate Fraction||Onafhankelijke Senaatsfractie||OSF||Hendrik ten Hoeven*||none||did not compete||0||1||0|
|Europe Transparent||Europa Transparant||ET||Paul van Buitenen*||EGP/EFA||did not compete||0||0||2|
The Christen-Democratisch Appèl is a centre-right Christian democratic party. It supports free enterprise and holds to the principle that government activity should supplement but not supplant communal action by citizens. On the political spectrum, the CDA sees its philosophy as standing between the "individualism" of the VVD and the "statism" of the Labour Party. The CDA favours European economic, cultural and political integration. The party is led by Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende. The CDA is a member of the Centrist Democrat International.
The Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA, Labour Party), a European social democratic party, is left of center. Its program is based on greater social, political, and economic equality for all citizens. Former PvdA-prime minister Joop den Uyl has called it an "equal spread of knowledge, income and power." In recent years the PvdA has espoused a third way-program. The PvdA is generally supportive of European integration. Although called the Labour Party, it has no formal links to the trade unions. In practice, however, strong links exist, with PvdA politicians often beginning their careers in the FNV labour union. The party is led by Wouter Bos. The PvdA is a member of the Socialist International.
The Socialistische Partij (SP) is a left-wing party. In the 1970s and 1980s, it was a People's Republic of China-supported Maoist party, but in 1991 the SP dropped its communist course, and chose a more independent and less radical socialist course, denouncing Maoism and the People's Republic of China. The party itself has called it a move "from socialism to a social ism." The party opposes what it sees as the European Superstate. The SP operates as an independent party within the European United Left–Nordic Green Left in the European Parliament. Agnes Kant is the leader of the SP.
The Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD) is a conservative liberal party. It thus attaches great importance to private enterprise and the freedom of the individual in political, social, and economic affairs. The party is generally supportive of European economic integration, but is less supportive of political integration. The VVD is generally seen as the most right wing of the major parties, though the List Pim Fortuyn took a position to the right of the VVD. Mark Rutte leads the VVD. The VVD is a member of the Liberal International.
The Party for Freedom (PVV) is a right-wing populist party. It was erected by Geert Wilders, who split from the VVD in 2004. The PVV opposes the European Islamization and seeks to limit taxation. It is Euroskeptic and seeks to limit immigration.
GroenLinks combines, as the name (which translates to GreenLeft) says, a Green, environmentalist with a left-wing ideals. It operates to the left of the PvdA. The party was founded in 1989 as a merger of a left-radical, a pacifist, a communist and a leftwing Christian party. In 2004, the party leader Femke Halsema announced she saw her own party as a leftwing liberal party, possibly breaking with its socialist roots. Like D66, it is a multiculturalist party. GroenLinks is in favour of European integration, but opposes the current policies of the European Union. GroenLinks is a member of the Global Greens.
The ChristenUnie is a Christian party, which mostly concentrates on ethical issues, such as a resistance against abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage. In other areas (e.g. immigration and the environment), the party often is closer to the left-wing parties. It is sceptic about European integration. The CU operates within the Independence and Democracy group within the European Parliament and is a founding member of the European Christian Political Movement. André Rouvoet leads the party.
Democraten 66 (D66) has had widely fluctuating electoral fortunes since the party's founding in 1966. It is a centrist left-liberal and radical democratic party, generally portrayed as between the VVD and GroenLinks, with its strongest support among young, urban, professional voters. It professes a pro-European platform of ethnic and religious tolerance. Alexander Pechtold leads the party. D66 is a member of the Liberal International.
The Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP) is a very conservative Christian party, with even stronger ethical points of view than the ChristenUnie. Although a very small party on a national level, it is an important political power in some orthodox reformed municipalities. The party sees governments (local, regional, national and international) as unconditional servants of God. The party bases all of its views directly on the Bible. The party opposes European integration and operates within the Independence and Democracy group. Bas van der Vlies leads the SGP.
Not recognized by the government are:
Year 1962 Is the Manager a Political Leader?-No: The City Manager's Job Involves Developing Plans and Proposals for the City Council, Not Involvement in Partisan Political Issues
Jul 01, 2006; 2006 Comment: H. G. Pope acknowledges Professor Kammerer's facts but draws different conclusions. Pope distinguishes between...
Year 1962 Is the Manager a Political Leader?-Yes: The City Manager Is in Politics Because of His Influential Role in Proposing Public Policies to the City Council
Jul 01, 2006; 2006 Comment: In 1961, Professor Gladys Kammerer and H. G. Pope, executive director of the Public Administration Service, spoke...