Timeline of medicine and medical technology
- c. 610-800 - Muhammad discussed the contagious nature of leprosy, mange and sexually transmitted disease.
- 750 - Madhav writes the Ayurvedic text Nidana where he lists diseases along with their causes, symptoms, and complications.
- c. 800-873 - Al-Kindi (Alkindus) introduces quantification into medicine with his De Gradibus
- c. 830-870 - Hunayn ibn Ishaq translates Galen's works into Arabic
- c. 838-870 - Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, a pioneer of pediatrics and the field of child development, writes the first encyclopedia of medicine.
- c. 865-925 - Rhazes pioneers pediatrics, and makes the first clear distinction between smallpox and measles in his al-Hawi. He also writes the Doubts about Galen, where he refutes Galen's theory of humorism using an experiment.
- 1000 - Abulcasis establishes surgery as a profession of in his Kitab al-Tasrif, which remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 16th century. The book first introduced the plaster, inhalant anesthesia, and many surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women, as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, specula, and bone saw.
- 1021 - Alhazen completes his Book of Optics, which made important advances in ophthalmology and eye surgery, as it correctly explained the process of visual perception for the first time.
- c. 1030 - Avicenna writes The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, in which he establishes experimental medicine and evidence-based medicine. The Canon remains a standard textbook in Muslim and European universities until the 18th century. The book's contributions to medicine includes the introduction of clinical trials, systematic experimentation and quantification in medicine and physiology, the discovery of contagious diseases, the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments, as well the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.
- 1100-1161 - Avenzoar invents the surgical procedure of tracheotomy in al-Andalus. He is also the first physician known to have carried out human dissections and postmortem autopsy, and proves that the skin disease scabies is caused by a parasite, which contradicted the erroneous theory of humorism. He was also the first to provide a real scientific etiology for the inflammatory diseases of the ear, and the first to clearly discuss the causes of stridor. Modern anesthesia was also developed in al-Andalus by the Muslim anesthesiologists Ibn Zuhr and Abulcasis. They were the first to utilize oral as well as inhalant anesthetics, and they performed hundreds of surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face.
- 1242 - Ibn an-Nafis suggests that the right and left ventricles of the heart are separate and discovers the pulmonary circulation (the cycle involving the ventricles of the heart and the lungs) and coronary circulation, for which he is considered the pioneer of circulation theory and one of the greatest physiologists. He emphasized the rigours of verification by measurement, observation and experiment, and was an early proponent of experimental medicine, postmortem autopsy, and human dissection. He also discredited many other erroneous Avicennian and Galenic doctrines on the four humours, pulse bones, muscles, intestines, sensory organs, bilious canals, esophagus, stomach, and the anatomy of other parts of the human body. Ibn al-Nafis also drew diagrams to illustrate different body parts in his new physiological system.
- c. 1248 - Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany and pharmacy, studied animal anatomy and medicine, and was a pioneer of veterinary medicine.
- 1249 - Roger Bacon writes about convex lens spectacles for treating long-sightedness
- 1300s - When the Black Death bubonic plague reached al-Andalus, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body.
- 1313-1374 - Ibn Khatima wrote a treatise called On the Plague, in which he establishes the existence of contagion through "experience, investigation, the evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports." He also discovers that "transmission is affected through garments, vessels and earrings."
- 1403 - concave lens spectacles to treat myopia
- early 16th century: Paracelsus, an alchemist by trade, rejects occultism and pioneers the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine
1500 - 1800
1800 - Present
1. The dates given for these medical works are uncertain. A Tribute to Hinduism
suggests that Sushruta lived in the 5th century BC.
1. The dates given for these medical works are uncertain. A Tribute to Hinduism suggests that Sushruta lived in the 5th century BC.
1. ^ Lawrence I. Conrad and Dominik Wujastyk (2000), Contagion: Perspectives from Pre-Modern Societies, "A Ninth-Century Muslim Scholar's Discussion". Ashgate, ISBN 0754602583.
2. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 
3. ^ David W. Tschanz, PhD (2003), "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
4. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
5. ^ a b c Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), p. 475-479 . Oxford University Press.
6. ^ Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslim Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
7. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.
8. ^ Katharine Park (March 1990). "Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 by Nancy G. Siraisi", The Journal of Modern History 62 (1), p. 169-170.
9. ^ Sarton, George (1927-31), Introduction to the History of Science, . Retrieved on 25 January 2008
10. ^ A. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", AlShindagah 68, January-February 2006.
11. ^ Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
12. ^ Prof. Dr. Mostafa Shehata, "The Ear, Nose and Throat in Islamic Medicine", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2003 (1): 2-5 .
13. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.
14. ^ Husain F. Nagamia (2003), "Ibn al-Nafīs: A Biographical Sketch of the Discoverer of Pulmonary and Coronary Circulation", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 1, p. 22–28.
15. ^ Chairman's Reflections (2004), "Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting", Heart Views 5 (2), p. 74-85 .
16. ^ George Sarton (cf. Dr. Paul Ghalioungui (1982), "The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait)
(cf. The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
17. ^ Ingrid Hehmeyer and Aliya Khan (2007), "Islam's forgotten contributions to medical science", Canadian Medical Association Journal 176 (10), p. 1467-1468 .
18. ^ Dr. Sulaiman Oataya (1982), "Ibn ul Nafis has dissected the human body", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn ul-Nafis has Dissected the Human Body, Encyclopedia of Islamic World).
19. ^ Dr Ibrahim Shaikh (2001), Who Discovered Pulmonary Circulation, Ibn Al-Nafis or Harvey?, FSTC.
20. ^ a b Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2002 (2): 2-9.