pole

pole

[pohl]
pole, in electricity and magnetism, point where electric or magnetic force appears to be concentrated. A single electric charge located at a point is sometimes referred to as an electric monopole. An electric dipole consists of two equal and opposite charges separated by a distance. Some molecules, although electrically neutral as a whole, do not have their charges distributed symmetrically, so that the separation of the centers of positive and negative charge constitutes an electric dipole; such molecules are called polar molecules. In calculating the electric potential at a distance r from an electric dipole, it is found that it varies principally as 1/r2, while the potential around a single charge varies as 1/r. More complex arrangements of charges may have potentials whose principal term contains a higher power of the distance r. A charge configuration for which the principal term of the potential varies as 1/r3 is called an electric quadrupole; similarly, an octupole is characterized by a potential varying as 1/r4, a 16-pole by 1/r5, and so forth. In magnetism, poles may be defined in an analogous way, so that an ordinary bar magnet with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other constitutes a magnetic dipole. The potential energy associated with a given arrangement of magnets may be analyzed similarly to that of an array of charges. The analogy is not complete, however, since no isolated magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles) have been found in nature, though some scientists believe their existence possible.
pole, magnetic: see magnetic pole.
Pole, Reginald, 1500-1558, English churchman, archbishop of Canterbury (1556-58), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was a cousin of the Tudors, being the son of Sir Richard Pole and of Margaret, countess of Salisbury, who was the daughter of George, duke of Clarence, and the niece of kings Edward IV and Richard III. Although he did not take priestly orders until late in life, he was devout from the first and received many church benefices from Henry VIII. When his benefactor broke with the pope, Pole went abroad. In 1536 he made a formal statement of his views on the king's divorce, attacking the doctrine of royal supremacy. In the same year he accepted Pope Paul III's summons to sit on the commission to reform the pontifical administration and was created cardinal. In 1537 and again in 1538-39, Pole was active in trying to organize a league against Henry, who now was setting out to destroy the Pole family. However, Pole was unsuccessful in this endeavor, and he returned to Rome and received the legatine governorship of Viterbo. He was one of the legates appointed to open the Council of Trent (1545). In 1553, on Edward VI's death, Pope Julius III made him legate to England, and he and Mary I set about restoring the Roman Catholic Church. However, he ran afoul of Mary's husband, Philip II of Spain, and then of Pope Paul IV, and his difficulties were multiplied. He was always a mild man and would have nothing to do with the burning of heretics. In 1556 he was ordained priest and consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. He died the same day as Mary.
Pole, Richard de la: see Pole, family.
Pole, William de la: see Pole, family.

Totem pole from Kitwancool Creek, B.C., Can.

Carved and painted vertical log, constructed by many Northwest Coast Indian peoples. The poles display mythological images, usually animal spirits, whose significance is their association with the lineage. Each figure represents a type of family crest. Some poles relate a family legend in the form of pictographs. Poles are erected to identify the owner of a house or other property, welcome visitors, indicate a portal or passageway, mark a gravesite, and even to ridicule an important person who failed in some way. Seealso symbol; totemism.

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Track-and-field event consisting of a vault for height over a crossbar with the aid of a long pole. It became a competitive sport in the mid-19th century and was included in the first modern Olympic Games. In competition, each vaulter is given three chances to clear a specific height. The bar is raised progressively until a winner emerges.

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Carved wooden pole used in the religious rites of the South Pacific islands. The poles, 12–26 ft (4–8 m) tall, resemble an upended canoe with an exaggerated prow; they consist of carved figures placed one atop the other (thought to represent deceased ancestors) and terminate in a flat projection of ornate, openwork ornament. They are intended to harbour the souls of the dead, keeping them away from the village, and are also used to transmit magical powers. Seealso totem pole.

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Southern extremity of the Earth's axis, located at latitude 90° S. It is the southern point from which all meridians of longitude start. The area around it is a lofty plateau in west-central Antarctica, with ice as much as 8,850 ft (2,700 m) thick. It has six months of complete daylight and six months of total darkness each year. It was first reached by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen in 1911, one month before the expedition led by British explorer Robert Falcon Scott; U.S. explorer Richard E. Byrd flew to the pole in 1929. The geographic pole does not coincide with the magnetic South Pole, which in the early 21st century was located on the Adélie Coast about 64°30' S, 137°50' E; it moves about 8 mi (13 km) to the northwest each year. The geomagnetic South Pole also moves; during the early 1990s it was located about 79°13' S, 108°44' E, in 2000 it was 65°39' S, 140° 01' E, and by 2005 it was back to about 79°45' S, 108°13' E.

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(born March 3, 1500, Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, Eng.—died Nov. 17, 1558, London) English Catholic prelate. A cousin of Henry VII, Pole was sent by Henry VIII to study in Italy (1521–27) and given minor offices in the church. Critical of Henry's antipapal policies, he wrote In Defense of Ecclesiastical Unity (1536) to defend the pope's spiritual authority. As cardinal, he was sent by Pope Paul III on missions to persuade Catholic monarchs to depose Henry. These efforts angered Henry, who executed Pole's brother, Lord Montague (1538), and his mother, Margaret, countess of Salisbury (1541). Pole was named papal governor of the Patrimony of St. Peter and later was presiding legate at the Council of Trent. When the Catholic Mary Tudor became queen as Mary I in 1553, he was appointed legate for England; there he instituted church reforms and was a strong influence on the queen. He was appointed archbishop of Canterbury (1556), but a conflict between the papacy and England's ally Spain caused the pope to cancel Pole's authority and declare him a heretic. Demoralized, he died 12 hours after the death of Queen Mary.

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(born March 3, 1500, Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, Eng.—died Nov. 17, 1558, London) English Catholic prelate. A cousin of Henry VII, Pole was sent by Henry VIII to study in Italy (1521–27) and given minor offices in the church. Critical of Henry's antipapal policies, he wrote In Defense of Ecclesiastical Unity (1536) to defend the pope's spiritual authority. As cardinal, he was sent by Pope Paul III on missions to persuade Catholic monarchs to depose Henry. These efforts angered Henry, who executed Pole's brother, Lord Montague (1538), and his mother, Margaret, countess of Salisbury (1541). Pole was named papal governor of the Patrimony of St. Peter and later was presiding legate at the Council of Trent. When the Catholic Mary Tudor became queen as Mary I in 1553, he was appointed legate for England; there he instituted church reforms and was a strong influence on the queen. He was appointed archbishop of Canterbury (1556), but a conflict between the papacy and England's ally Spain caused the pope to cancel Pole's authority and declare him a heretic. Demoralized, he died 12 hours after the death of Queen Mary.

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Northern end of the Earth's geographic axis, located at latitude 90° N. It is the northern point from which all meridians of longitude start. Lying in the Arctic Ocean and covered with drifting pack ice, it has six months of constant sunlight and six months of total darkness each year. Robert E. Peary claimed to have reached the pole by dogsled in 1909, but that is now in dispute; Roald Amundsen and Richard E. Byrd claimed to have reached it by air in 1926. The geographic pole does not coincide with the magnetic North Pole, which in the early 21st century lay at about 82°45' N, 114°25' W, or with the geomagnetic North Pole, which is at about 79°45' N, 71°45' W.

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Pole may refer to:

Cylindrical object

  • A solid cylindrical object with length greater than its diameter e.g:
    • Barber's pole, advertising a barber shop
    • Danish pole, a circus prop
    • Firemen's pole, a wooden pole or a metal tube or pipe installed between floors in fire stations
    • Flag pole, a metal pole from which a flag is hung
    • Lamppost, a raised source of light on the edge of a road
    • Totem pole, monumental sculptures carved from great trees
    • Utility pole, also called a telephone pole, telegraph pole or power pole, a pole that carries utility wires
    • Poles used in sporting and other activities:
      • Dance pole, a pole used for pole dancing
      • Festivus pole, a pole used in the celebration of Festivus that is traditionally made of aluminum
      • Maypole, a tall wooden pole with ornaments, like ribbons, that is danced around
      • Pole bending, a rodeo event that involves riding a horse around six poles arranged in a line
      • Pole vaulting pole, a pole used for pole vaulting
      • Pole-sitting pole, a pole used for pole sitting, which is the practice of sitting on a pole for extended lengths of time
      • Ski pole, a pole used by skiers to improve balance, speed and acceleration
      • Spinnaker pole, a spar used in sailboats to help support and control a variety of headsails, particularly the spinnaker
      • Trekking pole, also called hiking sticks or hiking poles, a pole used for hiking
    • Fishing pole, another name for fishing rod
    • Pole position, in motorsport, the position at the front of the grid (originally marked with a pole)
    • Another name for the rod, a unit of length equal to 11 cubits, 5.0292 meters or 16.5 feet (originally the length of a metal rod, or pole)

Geography

  • Geographical pole, either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body spins
    • North Pole, the northernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the Earth's surface
    • Polar circle, a circle of latitude where the sun is above and below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year
    • Polar climate, the climate of the polar regions, characterized by a lack of warm summers
    • Polar region, the region within the polar circles, referred to as the Arctic and Antarctic
    • South Pole, the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the Earth's surface
  • Magnetic pole
    • North Magnetic Pole, the shifting point on the Earth to which the "north" end of a dipole magnet points
    • South Magnetic Pole, the shifting point on the Earth to which the "south" end of a dipole magnet points
  • Mount Everest, the third "top" of the Earth
  • Pole of inaccessibility, a location that is the most challenging to reach owing to its remoteness from geographical features which could provide access

Astronomy

  • Celestial pole, the projection of the Earth's axis onto the celestial sphere (or analogous concept applied to other bodies)
  • Pole star, a visible star that is approximately aligned with the Earth's axis of rotation
  • Orbital pole
  • For concepts analogous to the Earth's geographic and magnetic poles on other planets and Solar System bodies, see Poles of astronomical bodies

Science and mathematics

  • One "half" of a dipole
  • Pole, a term used in electrical circuits referring to switches.
  • Pole (complex analysis), a certain type of mathematical singularity
  • Pole (geometry), a point that describes the position and orientation of a line with respect to a given circle
  • Landau pole, the energy scale where a coupling constant of a quantum field theory becomes infinite
  • Monopole
    • Magnetic monopole, a hypothetical particle that may be loosely described as a magnet with only one pole
    • Monopole (mathematics), a connection over a principal bundle G with a section (the Higgs field) of the associated adjoint bundle
    • Monopole (wine), an appellation controlled by a single winery
    • Monopole antenna, a radio antenna that replaces half of a dipole antenna with a ground plane at right-angles to the remaining half

Anatomy

People

  • Poles, people originating from or inhabiting the country of Poland
  • Pole (musician), an electronic music artist named Stefan Betke

As a surname

Other uses

See also

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