More formally, it is the application of a point estimator to the data.
In general, point estimation should be contrasted with interval estimation.
Point estimation should be contrasted with general Bayesian methods of estimation, where the goal is usually to compute (perhaps to an approximation) the posterior distributions of parameters and other quantities of interest. The contrast here is between estimating a single point (point estimation), versus estimating a weighted set of points (a probability density function). However, where appropriate, Bayesian methodology can include the calculation of point estimates, either as the expectation or median of the posterior distribution or as the mode of this distribution.