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The Lucas numbers are an integer sequence named after the mathematician François Édouard Anatole Lucas (1842–1891), who studied both that sequence and the closely related Fibonacci numbers (both are Lucas sequences). Like the Fibonacci numbers, each Lucas number is defined to be the sum of its two immediate previous terms, i.e. it is a Fibonacci integer sequence. Consequently, the ratio between two consecutive Lucas numbers converges to the golden ratio.## Extension to negative integers

Using L_{n-2} = L_{n} - L_{n-1}, one can extend the Lucas numbers to negative integers. So we get the following sequence (where values for $-5leq\{\}nleq5$ are shown): (... -11, 7, -4, 3, -1, 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, ...) . More specifically:## Relationship to Fibonacci numbers

The Lucas numbers are related to the Fibonacci numbers by the identities## Congruence relation

L_{n} is congruent to 1 mod n if n is prime, but some composite values of n also have this property.
## Lucas primes

A Lucas prime is a Lucas number that is prime. The first few Lucas primes are## See also

## External links

However, the first two Lucas numbers are L_{0} = 2 and L_{1} = 1 instead of 0 and 1, and the properties of Lucas numbers are therefore somewhat different from those of Fibonacci numbers.

A Lucas number may thus be defined as follows:

- $$

L_n := L(n):=begin{cases} 2 & mbox{if } n = 0; 1 & mbox{if } n = 1; L(n-1)+L(n-2) & mbox{if } n > 1. end{cases}

The sequence of Lucas numbers begins:

- $L\_\{-n\}=(-1)^nL\_n.!$

- $,L\_n\; =\; F\_\{n-1\}+F\_\{n+1\}$
- $,L\_n^2\; =\; 5\; F\_n^2\; +\; 4\; (-1)^n$, and thus as $n,$ approaches infinity $L\_n\; over\; F\_n,$ approaches $sqrt\{5\},\; .$
- $,F\_\{2n\}\; =\; L\_n\; F\_n$
- $,F\_n\; =\; \{L\_\{n-1\}+L\_\{n+1\}\; over\; 5\}$

Their closed formula is given as:

- $L\_n\; =\; varphi^n\; +\; (1-varphi)^\{n\}\; =\; varphi^n\; +\; (-\; varphi)^\{-\; n\}=left(\{\; 1+\; sqrt\{5\}\; over\; 2\}right)^n\; +\; left(\{\; 1-\; sqrt\{5\}\; over\; 2\}right)^n,\; ,$

where $varphi$ is the Golden ratio.

2, 3, 7, 11, 29, 47, 199, 521, 2207, 3571, 9349, ...

Except for the cases n = 0, 4, 8, 16, if L_{n} is prime then n is prime. The converse is false, however.

- MathWorld
- Dr Ron Knott
- Lucas numbers and the Golden Section
- A Lucas Number Calculator can be found here.

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Last updated on Friday July 25, 2008 at 21:34:32 PDT (GMT -0700)

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Last updated on Friday July 25, 2008 at 21:34:32 PDT (GMT -0700)

View this article at Wikipedia.org - Edit this article at Wikipedia.org - Donate to the Wikimedia Foundation

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