In mammals, pregnancy is the period of reproduction during which a female carries one or more live offspring from implantation in the uterus through gestation. It begins when a fertilized zygote implants in the female's uterus; and ends once it leaves the uterus.
The presence of the blastocyst means that two types of cells are forming, an inner-cell mass growing on the interior of the blastocele and cells growing on the exterior of it. In 24 to 48 hours, the zona pellucida breaches. The cells on the exterior of the blastocyst begin excreting an enzyme which erodes epithelial uterine lining and creates a site for implantation.
Several days later, chorionic villi in the forming placenta anchor the implantation site to the uterus. A system of blood and blood vessels now develops at the point of the newly forming placenta, growing near the implantation site. The small sac inside the blastocyst begins producing red blood cells. For the next 24 hours, connective tissue develops between the developing placenta and the growing embryo. This later develops into the umbilical cord.
The endoderm later forms the lining of the tongue, digestive tract, lungs, bladder and several glands. The mesoderm forms muscle, bone and lymph tissue, as well as the interior of the lungs, heart, reproductive and excretory systems. It also gives rise to the spleen, and produces blood cells. The ectoderm forms the skin, nails, hair, cornea, lining of the internal and external ear, nose, sinuses, mouth, anus, teeth, pituitary gland, mammary glands, eyes and all parts of the nervous system.
Approximately 18 days after fertilization, the embryo has divided to form much of the tissue it will need. It is shaped like a pear, where the head region is larger than the tail. The embryo's nervous system is one of the first organic systems to grow. It begins growing in a concave area known as the neural groove.
The blood system continues to grow networks which allow the blood to flow around the embryo. Blood cells are already being produced and are flowing through these developing networks. Secondary blood vessels also begin to develop around the placenta, to supply it with more nutrients. Blood cells begin to form on the sac in the center of the embryo, as well as cells which begin to differentiate into blood vessels. Endocardial cells begin to form the myocardium.
At about 24 days past fertilization, there is a primitive S-shaped tubule heart which begins beating. The flow of fluids throughout the embryo begin at this stage.
Evaluation of the utero-placental circulation by three-dimensional Doppler ultrasound in the second trimester of normal pregnancy
Apr 01, 2007; Abstract Objective. To define normative data with three-dimensional (3D) Doppler ultrasound in the second trimester spiral...