pincushion hakea

Hakea

[hey-kee-uh, hah-]

Hakea (Hakea) is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. They are found throughout the country, with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australia.

They can reach 1-6 m in height, and have spirally arranged leaves 2-20 cm long, simple or compound, sometimes (e.g. H. suaveolens) with the leaflets thin cylindrical and rush-like. The flowers are produced in dense flowerheads of variable shape, globose to cylindrical, 3-10 cm long, with numerous small red, yellow, pink, purple, pale blue or white flowers.

Hakeas are named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake, the 18th century German patron of botany, following Heinrich Schrader's description of Hakea teretifolia in 1797.

It is now widely accepted that Grevillea is paraphyletic with respect to Hakea. It is likely, therefore, that Hakea will soon be transferred into Grevillea.

Classification

Hakeas are closely related to the genus Grevillea and Finschia, both members of the subfamily Grevilleoideae within the family Proteaceae. Many species have similar inflorescences, but hakeas can be distinguished by their woody seed pods.

Horticulture

Hakeas are popular ornamental plants in gardens in Australia, though not nearly as commonly seen as grevilleas and banksias. Several hybrids and cultivars have been developed. They are best grown in beds of light soil which is watered but still well drained.

Some showy western species, such as Hakea multilineata, H. francisiana and H. bucculenta, require grafting onto hardy stock such as Hakea salicifolia for growing in more humid climates, as they are sensitive to dieback.

Many species, particularly (but not always) Eastern Australian species, are notable for their hardiness, to the point they have become weedy. Hakea gibbosa, H. sericea and H. drupacea (previously H. suaveolens) have been weeds in South Africa, Hakea laurina has become naturalized around Adelaide.

Species

  • Hakea lissocarpha (Honeybush Hakea)
  • Hakea lissosperma (Mountain Needlewood)
  • Hakea longiflora
  • Hakea loranthifolia
  • Hakea lorea (Corkwood, Witinti)
  • Hakea maconochieana
  • Hakea macraeana (Willow Needlewood)
  • Hakra macrocarpa (Dyaridany, Jaradinty)
  • Hakea macrorhyncha
  • Hakea marginata
  • Hakea megadenia
  • Hakea megalosperma (Lesueur Hakea)
  • Hakea meisneriana
  • Hakea microcarpa (Small fruit Hakea, Adam's Needle)
  • Hakea minyma
  • Hakea mitchellii
  • Hakea muelleriana (Desert Hakea)
  • Hakea multilineata (Grass-leaved Hakea)
  • Hakea myrtoides (Myrtle Hakea)
  • Hakea neurophylla (Pink-flowered Hakea)
  • Hakea newbeyana
  • Hakea nitida (Frog Hakea, Shining Hakea, Tjiridi)
  • Hakea nodosa (Yellow Hakea)
  • Hakea obliqua (Needles & Corks)
  • Hakea obtusa
  • Hakea ochroptera
  • Hakea oleifolia (Dungyn, Olive-leaf Hakea)
  • Hakea orthorrhyncha (Bird Beak Hakea)
  • Hakea pachyphylla
  • Hakea pandanicarpa (Thick-leaved Hakea. Screw-Pine Hakea)
  • Hakea pedunculata
  • Hakea pendens
  • Hakea persiehana
  • Hakea petiolaris (Sea-urchin Hakea)
  • Hakea platysperma (Cricket Ball Hakea, Talking Women, Woody Peach)
  • Hakea plurinervia
  • Hakea polyanthema
  • Hakea preissii (Christmas Hakea, Needle Bush, Needle Tree)
  • Hakea pritzelii
  • Hakea propinqua
  • Hakea prostrata (Harsh Hakea)
  • ''Hakea psilorrhyncha' (Needles and Corks)
  • Hakea pulvinifera
  • Hakea purpurea
  • Hakea pycnoneura
  • Hakea recurva (Djanokmurd, Standback)
  • Hakea repullulans
  • Hakea rhombales (Walukara)
  • Hakea rigida
  • Hakea rostrata (Beaked Hakea, Turkey Gobblers, Kidney Bush)
  • Hakea rugosa (Dwarf hakea, Wrinkled Hakea)
  • Hakea ruscifolia (Candle-spike Hakea)
  • Hakea salicifolia (Willow-leaved Hakea)
  • Hakea scoparia
  • Hakea sericea (Needlebush)
  • Hakea smilacifolia
  • Hakea spathulata
  • Hakea standleyensis
  • Hakea stenocarpa (Narrow-fruited Hakea)
  • Hakea stenophylla
  • Hakea strumosa
  • Hakea subsulcata
  • Hakea sulcata (Furrowed Hakes)
  • Hakea teretifolia (Dagger Hakea)
  • Hakea tephrosperma (Hooked Needlewood, Striped Hakea)
  • Hakea trifurcata (Two-leaf Hakea)
  • Hakea trineura
  • Hakea tuberculata
  • Hakea undulata (Wavy-leaved Hakea)
  • Hakea ulicina
  • Hakea varia (Variable-leaved Hakea)
  • Hakea verrucosa
  • Hakea victoria (Lantern Hakea, Royal Hakea)
  • Hakea vittata
  • References

    • Barker WR, Barker RM, Haegi L (1999). Flora of Australia: Volume 17B: Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. ISBN 0-643-06454-0.
    • Holliday Ivan (2005). Hakeas:a field and garden guide. Reed New Holland. ISBN 1-877069-14-0.
    • Young, JA (2006). Hakeas of Western Australia : a field and identification guide. .

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