While some findings may be classic, typical or highly suggestive in a certain condition, they may not occur uniquely in this condition and therefore may not directly imply a specific diagnosis. A pathognomonic finding on the other hand allows immediate diagnosing, since there are no other conditions in the differential diagnosis. A pathognomonic sign or symptom can sometimes be absent in a certain disease, since the term only implies that when it is present, the doctor instantly knows the patient's illness.
Singular pathognomonic signs are relatively uncommon. Examples of pathognomonic findings include Koplik's spots inside the mouth in measles, the palmar xanthomata seen on the hands of people suffering from hyperlipoproteinemia, or a tetrad of rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain and kidney disease in a child with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
|Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy||Gowers' sign|
|Hypocalcemia||Trousseau sign and Chvostek sign|
|Liver cirrhosis||Spider angioma|
|Systemic Lupus Erythematosus||Butterfly rash|
|Bulimia Nervosa||Chipmunk facies (parotid gland swelling)|
|Leprosy||Leonine facies (thickened lion-like facial skin)|
|Diphtheria||Pseudomembrane on tonsils, pharynx and nasal cavity|
|Grave's disease||New bilateral Exophthalmos|
|Pancreatitis||Cullen's sign (bluish discoloration of umbilicus)|
|Chronic hemorrhagic pancreatitis||Grey-Turner's sign (ecchymosis in flank area)|
|Typhoid fever||Rose spots in abdomen|
|Meningitis||Kernig's sign and Brudzinski's sign|
|Cholecystitis||Murphy's sign (pain on deep inspiration when inflamed gallbladder is palpated)|
|Angina pectoris||Levine's sign (hand clutching of chest)|
|Patent ductus arteriosus||Machine-like murmur|
|Parkinson’s disease||Pill-rolling tremors|
|Whipple's disease||Oculo-Masticatory Myorhythmia|
|Rib fracture||Pain produced with attempts to sleep on one's back|
|Acute Myeloid Leukemia||Auer rod|
|Multiple Sclerosis||Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia|
|Third heart sound||Congestive heart failure|
|Pericardial friction rub||Pericarditis|
HIV, visceral leishmaniasis and Parkinsonism combined with diabetes mellitus and hyperuricaemia: A case report.(Case Report)(Case study)
Sep 25, 2008; Authors: Krishna Pandey (corresponding author) ; Prabhat Kumar Sinha ; Vidya Rabidas ; Nawin Kumar ; Sanjiva Bimal...
Missed, Ignored and Delayed ; The third week of April is dedicated to increasing awareness about Parkinsons Disease, a rare brain disorder.
Apr 26, 2010; Dopamine droughtWith the world marking Parkinson's Day on April 11, the disease that afflicts about 1 per cent of the world...