Pike

Pike

[pahyk]
Pike, Albert, 1809-91, American lawyer, Confederate general in the Civil War, b. Boston. He settled (1832) in Arkansas, where he became a newspaper editor and a lawyer. He was a captain in the Mexican War. In the Civil War, Pike secured for the Confederacy the loyalty of the tribes in the Indian Territory. Criticized for inept handling of his Native American brigade, especially at the battle of Pea Ridge (Mar., 1862), he resigned. After the war he practiced law in Memphis and Washington. His Prose Sketches and Poems Written in the Western Country (1834) resulted from a trip over the Santa Fe Trail. A prominent Freemason (he joined the order in 1850), his writings on the movement include Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (1871).
Pike, James Albert, 1913-69, American Episcopal bishop, b. Oklahoma City. A lawyer who had been raised as a Roman Catholic, he served (1943-45) in the U.S. navy and then studied for the Episcopal ministry. He was ordained a deacon in the Episcopal Church and served as chaplain at George Washington Univ. After being ordained a priest in 1946 he studied at Union Theological Seminary, from which he received a B.D. in 1951. He was rector of Christ Church in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and Episcopal chaplain at Vassar (1947-49) and then became chaplain and head of the religion department at Columbia. From 1952 to 1958 he was dean of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. Pike criticized McCarthyism and became an outspoken advocate of civil rights and planned parenthood. In 1958 he was appointed bishop of California, serving until 1966. He outlined misgivings about church doctrine, including that of the Virgin birth and the Trinity, in A Time for Christian Candor (1963). In 1966 he joined the Center for Democratic Institutions, and two years later he renounced the church to form the Foundation for Religious Transition. He died while on an expedition in the Judean desert. Among his many books are Beyond Anxiety (1953); The Church, Politics, and Society (with J. W. Pyle, 1955); The Next Day (1957); and The Other Side (1967).

See Search by his wife, D. K. Pike (1970); W. Stringfellow and A. Towne, The Bishop Pike Affair (1967).

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813, American explorer, an army officer, b. Lamberton (now part of Trenton), N.J. He joined the army (c.1793) and was commissioned second lieutenant in 1799. In 1805 he led an exploring party to search for the source of the Mississippi River; although he mistakenly identified Red Cedar Lake (now Cass Lake) in Minnesota as the source, he was not far wrong. After his return he was sent on an expedition (1806-7) to explore the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers and to reconnoiter Spanish settlements in New Mexico. Pike and his men went up the Arkansas River to the site of Pueblo, Colo., and explored much of the country, sighting the peak that is named after him, Pikes Peak. When he and a small party went to the Rio Grande, they were taken into custody by the Spanish who brought them to Santa Fe and then to Chihuahua and finally released them at the border of the Louisiana Territory. Upon his return, Pike was accused of complicity in the plot of Aaron Burr and James Wilkinson to detach Western territory from the United States, but he was exonerated by the Secretary of War. Pike was promoted to the rank of brigadier general during the War of 1812. He was killed while commanding his troops during the successful assault on York (now Toronto).

See his journals (2 vol., 1987) and biography by W. E. Hollon (1949, repr. 1981).

pike, common name for the family Esocidae, freshwater game and food fishes of Europe, Asia, and North America. The pike, the muskellunge, and the pickerel form a small but well-known group of long, thin fishes with spineless dorsal fins, large anal fins, and long, narrow jaws with formidable teeth. There are five species in the single genus Esox, found in the lakes and streams of central and E North America. The muskellunge, named by the Native Americans, is the largest of these, averaging from 2 to 7 ft (61-213.5 cm) in length and from 10 to 20 lb (4.5 to 9 kg) in weight, though some may reach 60 lb (27 kg). Carnivorous and solitary except at spawning time, muskellunges feed on fish, frogs, snakes, and even the young of aquatic mammals and waterfowl. The American, northern, or great northern pike, Esox lucius, called jackfish in Canada, is also voracious, lurking in weedy shallows to ambush its prey. This pike, believed to be the same species as the European pike, is said to consume one fifth of its own weight (10-35 lb or 4.5-16 kg) daily. Although a prized game fish in its native habitat, it has been reviled as a pest with the potential to devastate other game species in areas where it has been introduced. The pickerels are smaller members of the family. The grass, or barred, pickerel rarely exceeds 1 ft (30 cm) in length and 1 lb (.45 kg) in weight; the larger Eastern pickerel is found in clear lakes and streams together with bass. Pikes are stubborn fighters and are valued as game fishes; their flesh, though bony, is delicious. The walleyed pike is really a perch. Pikes are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Osteichthyes, order Clupeiformes, family Esocidae.
pike, in U.S. history: see turnpike.
pike, weapon: see spear.

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