Definitions

Phut

Phut

Phut, in the Bible, son of Ham and eponym of an African people. It may also be a region, possibly Punt or Libya, and is perhaps the same as Pul 2. It also appears as Put.
Phut or Put (Hebrew: פוט pûṭ; Septuagint Greek Φουδ Phoud) is the third son of Ham (one of the sons of Noah), in the biblical Table of Nations (Genesis 10:6; cf. 1 Chronicles 1:8).

Five other biblical verses refer to the descendants of Put, where they are consistently noted to be warriors. In three cases, they are described as being supporters of Egypt, along with Kush (biblical Cush).

Put (or Phut) is consistently associated with Libya. Josephus writes: "Phut also was the founder of Libya to the south, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself" (AotJ Book 1:6/2). The Libya mentioned is not identical to the modern day country of Libya. This is likewise indicated in the biblical account where it is said that "Put and the Libyans" were the helpers of Egypt (Nahum 3:9). The Septuagint and Vulgate substitute "Libya" in Ezekiel 27:10, 38:5, where the Hebrew Bible refers to Put.

The Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts a tradition that the wife of Put was named Bakht, a daughter of Batawil son of Tiras, and that she bore him the "Copts".

Ancient Egyptian texts dating back as far as the 22nd dynasty, refer to the tribe of pỉdw and as far back as the 5th dynasty there are records attesting to expeditions made to the Land of Punt, while a Ptolemaic text from Edfu refers to the t3 n n3 pỉt.w "the land of the Pitu(-people)". The word was later written in Demotic as pỉt and paiat in Coptic. Greek language texts from Graeco-Roman Egypt also refer to this Libyan group.

A multilingual stela from al-Kabrīt, dating to the reign of Darius I refers to the Put as the putiya (Old Persian) and puṭa (Neo-Babylonian), but the equivalent text written in Egyptian has t3 ṯmḥw "Libya".

References

  • Baker, David W. 1992. "Put". In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman. Vol. 5 of 6 vols. New York: Doubleday. 560
  • Graefe, Erhart. 1975. "Der libysche Stammesname p(j)d(j)/pjt im spätzeitlichen Onomastikon." Enchoria: Zeitschrift für Demotistik und Koptologie 5:13–17.

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