Definitions

pholis gunnellus

List of Swedish fish

List of fish encountered in Swedish waters; both fresh water (lakes and streams) and in the marine salt water.

The table denotes species native to Sweden, as well as those introduced from a neighbouring country and those that are only occurred occasionally. In total there are approximate 140 species native and common in Sweden, and another 90 which are sporadical, not established or extinct.

The IUCN Red List is set of certain criteria of the fish population status in Sweden. The following terminology is used: Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, Near Threatened, Least Concern, Disappeared, Data Deficient and Not Evaluated.

List

Aulopiformes

The Aulopiformes, or grinners, are marine fish, most of which live in deep-sea waters in the Atlantic. Only sporadically encountered in Swedish waters, e.g. the Magnisudis atlantica has to date been found eight times, the first in 1960 and the last in 1978.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Paralepididae (Barracudina) Arctozenus risso N/A Mindre laxtobis Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Paralepididae Magnisudis atlantica N/A Laxtobis Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Acipenseriformes (Sturgeon-like fish)

The Acipenseriformes is an order of primitive ray-finned fishes that includes the sturgeons and paddlefishes. There have been occasional finds in Swedish waters. Some species, such as the Beluga sturgeon are heavily desired for its roe, or caviar.

Some species of sturgeons are known to have populated Swedish waters in the 19th century along the coast lines of the Baltic Sea and in some inland streams. The population has now probably disappeared, and the red list denotes it as disappeared (RE). Stuffed specimens are commons in museums.

Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Acipenseridae Acipenser baeri Sturgeon Sibirisk stör brackish water Introduced; not established Not Evaluated
Acipenseridae Acipenser gueldenstaedti N/A Rysk stör brackish water Introduced; not established Not Evaluated
Acipenseridae Acipenser ruthenus N/A Sterlett Fresh water, brackish water Introduced, not established Not Evaluated
Acipenseridae Acipenser oxyrinchus N/A Stör Fresh, marine and brackish water Sporadic, previously native and common Disappeared (RE)
Acipenseridae Huso huso Beluga sturgeon Hus brackish water Introduced?, not established Not Evaluated

Anguilliformes (Eel fish)

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Swedish waters has radically diminished in the latest decades, and is now listed as Critically Endangered. The population is estimations to be 1%-10% of that in the 1970s. Eels are sensitive of environmental pollution, but the fishing of eel have also increased, especially in French waters. As Eels migrate long distances, overfishing and pollution in one location may radically endanger the population and little is known of all possible causes for the diminishing population.

The eel is a popular dish, especially in southern Sweden, and is economically of importance with catches of around 1,000 tonnes (1,200 in 1983). It is prepared by being smoked.

Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Anguillidae Anguilla anguilla European eel Ål Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Critically endangered (CR)
Congridae Conger conger European conger Havsål Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Nemichthyidae Nemichthys scolopaceus Slender snipe eel Trådål Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks)

The order Carcharhiniformes, or Ground sharks, are the largest order of sharks and include many well-known types such as the blue shark and the sandbar shark.
Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Triakidae Galeorhinus galeus School Shark Gråhaj Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Triakidae Mustelus asterias Starry smooth-hound Nordlig hundhaj / Glatthaj Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Carcharhinidae Carcharhinus longimanus Oceanic whitetip shark Årfenhaj Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Carcharhinidae Prionace glauca Blue shark Blåhaj Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Pentanchidae Galeus melastomus Blackmouth catshark Hågäl Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scyliorhinidae Scyliorhinus canicula Small-spotted catshark Småfläckig rödhaj Marine Native and common Data Deficiency (DD)
Scyliorhinidae Scyliorhinus stellaris Nursehound Storfläckig rödhaj Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Beryciformes

The Beryciformes are an order of ray-finned fishes. They live solely in the marine, in deep-waters usually in tropical areas, and are only sporadically seen in Nordic waters.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Berycidae Beryx decadactylus Alfonsino Nordisk beryx Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Beloniformes

The Beloniformes is an order of "horned" fishes. The most notable species here is the Garfish (Belone belone) which swims in large shoals during the summer along the coasts of south and west Sweden, and caught for food or sport. The total catch during 1983 was 44 tonnes.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Belonidae Belone belone Garfish Näbbgädda / Horngädda Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Scomberesocidae Scomberesox saurus Atlantic saury Makrillgädda Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Batrachoidiformes

The order Batrachoidiformes, or toadfish, are a type of ray-finned fish normally found on the sand and mud bottoms of coastal waters worldwide. The only example of a fish from this order caught in Swedish water was a specimens of the Halobatrachus didactylus -- a fish native to the coasts of Africa -- caught by the shore of southern Sweden in 1820 (specimens preserved).


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Batrachoididae Halobatrachus didactylus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Chimaeriformes (Ghost sharks)

The Chimaeriformes order is common in tropical waters. The only species found in Swedish water is the Chimaera monstrosa which is somewhat common in the westernmost waters of Sweden, the Skagerrak. This fish is unsuitable as a food fish, but its large liver is used to produce a lubricant.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Chimaeridae Chimaera monstrosa N/A Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)

Clupeiformes (Herring-like fish)

Clupeiformes is the order of ray-finned fish that includes the herring family, Clupeidae, and the anchovy family, Engraulidae.

The herring is common around the coasts of Sweden where it is periodically the most commons fish -- the population in the shoals fluctuates greatly every year. The herring has been of historical importance for Swedish economy and indeed fod food since the Middle Ages. It is still today the economically most important Swedish fish. The total catch of herring in Swedish waters in 1996 was 132,153 tonnes, of which 74,293 tonnes became fish meal and 57,860 tonnes was sold to consumers.

The herring is also an important part of the Swedish cuisine. It is served pickled both at Christmas and at Midsummer, and in northern Sweden the fermented herring is popular treat.

Shoals of anchovies are denoted as native and commons, but the anchovy is primarily native to southern Europe, and the shoals in Nordic waters varies between years. As such, fishing of it is not systematical.

A third economically important fish of this order is the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus). The total catch in Swedish waters in 1996 was 168,582 tonnes. It is often flavoured and put in cans labeled as anchovy, which is incorrect from a zoological point of view, but fairly accurate in terms of usage. This pickled "anchovy" is a main ingredient of the Swedish traditional dish Janssons frestelse.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Clupeidae (herrings) Alosa alosa Shad Majfisk Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Not Available (NA)
Clupeidae Alosa fallax N/A Staksill Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Not Available (NA)
Clupeidae Clupea harengus Atlantic herring Sill / strömming Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Clupeidae Sardina pilchardus European pilchard (True sardin) Sardin Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Clupeidae Sprattus sprattus European sprat Skarpsill / Vassbuk Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Engraulididae (anchovies) Engraulis encrasicolus European anchovy Ansjovis Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Cypriniformes

The family Abramis ballerus consists of several type of Carp-like fishes, the most important being the Cyprinid -- the carps and minnows.

The Carp bream (Abramis ballerus), the largest of the breams, is of note in Swedish fresh waters. Once an important source of food (which is still the case in parts of Europe), it is today only of economical importance in Sweden's southern parts (Skåne, etc). However it is still common in other waters in Sweden, where it is a popular game fish.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Cyprinidae (Carps) Abramis ballerus Blue bream (Zope) Faren Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Cyprinidae Abramis bjoerkna White bream Björkna Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Abramis brama Carp bream Braxen Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Abramis vimba Vimba Vimma Fresh water Native and common Data deficiency (DD)
Cyprinidae Alburnus alburnus Bleak Löja / Benlöja Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Aspius aspius Asp Asp Fresh water Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Cyprinidae Carassius carassius Crucian Carp Ruda Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass Carp or White Amur Gräskarp Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Cyprinus carpio Common or European Carp Karp Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Gobio gobio Gudgeon Sandkrypare Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Cyprinidae Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Silver carp Silverkarp Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Bighead carp Marmorkarp Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Leucaspius delineatus N/A Groplöja Fresh water Native and common Near threatened (NT)
Cyprinidae Leuciscus idus Ide or Orfe Id Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Leuciscus leuciscus Common Dace Stäm Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Pelecus cultratus N/A Skärkniv Fresh water Native and common Not Available (NA)
Cyprinidae Phoxinus phoxinus Eurasian minnow Elrita Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Rutilus rutilus Roach Mört Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Scardinius erythrophthalmus Rudd Sarv Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyprinidae Squalius cephalus N/A Färna Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Cyprinidae Tinca tinca Tench Sutare Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cobitidae Cobitis taenia Spined Loach Nissöga Fresh and brackish water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Balitoridae Barbatula barbatula N/A Grönling Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)

Esociformes (pike fish)

There is only one fish of the Esox family in Europe: the Esox lucius, Epox, also known as northern Pike. This fish is commons in lakes in the whole of Sweden, with the exceptions of the northernmost regions where it is only sporadical.

Commercial fishing is practically non-existent. Most epox are caught by sport-fishers; it is the largest fish in fresh waters, with the official record weight (in Swedish fresh waters) being 19 kg.

Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Esocidae Esox lucius Epox Gädda Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated

Gadiformes (Cod-like fish)

That order of Gadiformes include many important food fish. For Sweden, the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua is in fact, together with the herring, the most important food fish. The catches of cod in Swedish waters are conducted both west of Sweden in the Skagerrak and east in the Baltic Sea. Cod in the Baltic does not migrate to the Atlantic, and has even been considered belonging to a separate species: Gadus morhua callarias, but this view is generally abandoned today.

The Baltic cod has been subjected to heavy fishing in the latest decades and is now endangered. Fishing stops have at times been called for, but the cod is of importance to many countries around the Baltic and is of such economical importance to a frigate of trawlers that a complete stop has not been carried through.

The Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is another important food fish of Gadiformes. It is, in Swedish view, less important than the cod as it does not populate the Baltic. Like the cod it has been subjected to tough fishing to a degree that has diminished the population.

Burbot, the only fresh water fish of this order, is common in the whole of Sweden. It is the provincial fish of Västergötland in west Sweden.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Gadidae Gadiculus argenteus N/A Silvertorsk Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gadidae Gadus morhua Atlantic cod Torsk Marine, brackish water Native and common Endangered (EN)
Gadidae Melanogrammus aeglefinus Haddock Kolja Marine Native and common Near threatened (NT)
Gadidae Merlangius merlangus Whiting Vitling Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gadidae Micromesistius poutassou N/A Kolmule / Blåvitling Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gadidae Pollachius pollachius Pollock (Atlantic, or European) Lyrtorsk / Bleka Marine Native and common Endangered (EN)
Gadidae Pollachius virens Pollock (coalfish) Gråsej Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gadidae Trisopterus esmarkii N/A Vitlinglyra Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gadidae Trisopterus luscus Bib or Pouting Skäggtorsk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gadidae Trisopterus minutus Poor cod Glyskolja Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Lotidae Brosme brosme Cusk Lubb Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Lotidae Ciliata mustela N/A Femtömmad skärlånga Marine Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Lotidae Ciliata septentrionalis N/A Nordlig skärlånga Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Lotidae Enchelyopus cimbrius Fourbeard rockling Fyrtömmad skärlånga Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Lotidae Gaidropsarus vulgaris N/A Tretömmad skärlånga Marine Native and common Not Available (NA)
Lotidae Lota lota Burbot Lake Fresh water Native and common Endangered (EN)
Lotidae Molva dypterygia N/A Birkelånga Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Lotidae Molva molva Common ling Långa Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Macrouridae Coryphaenoides rupestris N/A Skoläst Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Macrouridae Malacocephalus laevis N/A Småfjällig skoläst Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Merlucciidae Merluccius merluccius N/A Kummel Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Phycidae Phycis blennoides N/A Fjällbrosme Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Ranicipitidae Raniceps raninus N/A Paddtorsk Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Gasterosteiformes (Pipefish or Sticklebacks)

The most notable families of the Gasterosteiformes order are the sticklebacks. On the northern hemisphere, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is common in all oceans including the Swedish coasts, and in adjacent fresh water lakes and streams. It was once caught in large quantites to make fish oil; today it is still caught in some extent for the purpose of fish meal.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Macroramphosidae Macroramphosus scolopax Longspine snipefish Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gasterosteidae Gasterosteus aculeatus Three-spined stickleback Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Gasterosteidae Pungitius pungitius N/A Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Gasterosteidae Spinachia spinachia N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Entelurus aequoraeus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Nerophis lumbriciformis N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Nerophis ophidion N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Syngnathus acus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Syngnathus rostellatus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Syngnathidae Syngnathus typhle N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Lamniformes (Makerell sharks)

The Lamniformes includes some of the most familiar species of sharks, such as the great white shark. For this list, the Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is of note, as it is the largest fish in Nordic water, occasionally encountered on the Swedish west coast (Västergötland). As the finds have become more sparse in recent years it is now listed as Endangered.
Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Alopiidae Alopias vulpinus Long-tailed thresher shark Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Alopiidae Cetorhinus maximus Basking Shark Marine Sporadic Endangered (EN)
Alopiidae Lamna nasus Porbeagle Shark Marine Native and common Critically endangered (CR)

Myxiniformes

The Myxiniformes, or Hagfish, is a family of primitive eel-like fish. They live in marine waters, and in Swedish waters they are encountered west of Sweden in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. It lacks economical importance as it is not eaten.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Myxinidae Myxine glutinosa N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Lampriformes (Deep sea ray finned fish)

The Lampriformes is an order of primitive, often rope-like, fishes. Living in deep-sea in tropical and temperate waters, they are rarely encountered in Nordic waters.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Lampridae (Opah) Lampris guttatus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Regalecidae Regalecus glesne King of herrings Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Trachipteridae Trachipterus arcticus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Myctophiformes

The order Myctophiformes, which includes the family Myctophidae, or lanternfishes, are deep-sea fish common on the southern hemisphere and only rarely caught in Swedish waters.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Myctophidae (Lanternfish) Notoscopelus kroyeri N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Lophiiformes

The Lophiiformes, or Angler Fish, are deep-water fish with big heads. Of these, the Angler or Sea-Devil (Lophius piscatorius) is common in Sweden in the waters west of Sweden in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. It is a tasty fish and therefore common in the fish dishes, usually with its head removed. The Swedish catch in 1983 was 26 tonnes.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Lophiidae Lophius piscatorius Angler Marulk Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Mugiliformes

Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Mugilidae (Mullets) Chelon labrosus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Mugilidae Liza aurata N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Mugilidae Liza ramada N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Osmeriformes

The Osmeriformes order is generally encountered in the Atlantic Ocean as well as other oceans. A few species of the Argentinidae family extend their habitat to the Skagerrak where it is caught by Swedish ships. The catches are not food fish, but processed into fish meal.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Argentinidae Argentina silus Greater Argentine Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Argentinidae Argentina sphyraena Argentina Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Perciformes (Perch-like fish)

The Perciformes include about 40% of all fish. The name Perciformes means perch-like.

One of the best known types is the Zander (gös in Swedish), commons and native in Sweden and indeed in most of Europe. It is a popular game fish because of its tastfulness. In Sweden it is common in all regions except the northernmost mountains and on the island Gotland, and it is the provincial fish of the province Västmanland. The Swedish record weight is 12.007 kg.

The arguably most popular fish in Swedish fresh water is the European perch, and the annual catch is around 2,000 tonnes. It is commons in the whole country -- with the exception of the mountain regions in the north -- and commonly encountered around the coast of the brackish Baltic Sea.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Ammodytidae (Sand lance) Ammodytes Marineus N/A Havstobis Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Ammodytidae Ammodytes tobianus Lesser sand eel Kusttobis Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Ammodytidae Hyperoplus lanceolatus Greater sand eel Tobiskung Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Anarhichadidae Anarhichas denticulatus N/A Blå havskatt Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Anarhichadidae Anarhichas lupus Seawolf Havskatt Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Anarhichadidae Anarhichas minor N/A Fläckig havskatt Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Bramidae Brama brama Atlantic pomfret Havsbraxen Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Bramidae Pterycombus brama N/A Fengömmare Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Callionymidae Callionymus lyra N/A Randig sjökock Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Callionymidae Callionymus maculatus N/A Fläckig sjökock Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Caproidae Capros aper N/A Trynfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Carangidae Naucrates ductor Pilot fish Lotsfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Carangidae Trachinotus ovatus N/A Blå gaffelmakrill Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Carangidae Trachurus trachurus Atlantic horse mackerel Taggmakrill Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Centrarchidae Micropterus dolomieu Smallmouth brass Svartabborre Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Centrarchidae Micropterus salmoides Largemouth brass Öringabborre Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Centrolophidae Centrolophus niger Rudderfish Svartfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Centrolophidae Hyperoglyphe perciformis N/A Svartfening Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Centrolophidae Schedophilus medusophagus N/A Engelsk svartfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gempylidae Lepidopus caudatus Silver scabbardfish Strumpebandsfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gempylidae Nesiarchus nasutus N/A Havsgädda Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gobiesocidae Diplecogaster bimaculata N/A Tvåfläckig dubbelsugare Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Aphia minuta N/A Klarbult Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Crystallogobius linearis N/A Glasbult Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Gobius niger N/A Svart smörbult Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Gobiusculus flavescens N/A Sjustrålig smörbult Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Lebetus scorpioides N/A Simpstubb Marine Native and common Data deficiency (DD)
Gobiidae Lesueurigobius friesii N/A Spetsstjärtad smörbult Marine Native and common Data deficiency (DD)
Gobiidae Pomatoschistus microps N/A Lerstubb Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Pomatoschistus minutus N/A Sandstubb Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Pomatoschistus norvegicus N/A Dystubb Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Pomatoschistus pictus N/A Bergstubb Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Gobiidae Thorogobius ephippiatus N/A Leopardbult Marine Native and common Least concern (LC)
Labridae Acantholabrus palloni N/A Brunsnultra Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Labridae Centrolabrus exoletus N/A Grässnultra Marine Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Labridae Ctenolabrus rupestris N/A Stensnultra Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Labridae Labrus bergylta Ballan wrasse Berggylta Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Labridae Labrus mixtus N/A Blågylta Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Labridae Symphodus melops N/A Skärsnultra Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Moronidae Dicentrarchus labrax European seabass Havsabborre Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Mullidae Mullus surmuletus N/A Mulle Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Percidae Gymnocephalus cernua Ruffe Gärs Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Percidae Perca fluviatilis European perch Abborre Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Percidae Sander lucioperca Zander Gös Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Pholididae Pholis gunnellus N/A Tejsterfisk Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Polyprionidae Polyprion americanus Atlantic wreckfish Vrakfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sciaenidae Argyrosomus regius Meagre Havsgös Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae (Mackerell, tunas and bonitos) Auxis randei N/A Auxid Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae Euthynnus alletteratus N/A Tunnina Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae Katsuwonus pelamis Skipjack tuna Bonit Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae Orcynopsis unicolor N/A Ostrimmig pelamid Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae Sarda sarda Atlantic bonito Ryggstrimming pelamid Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scombridae Scomber scombrus Atlantic mackerel Makrill Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Scombridae Thunnus thynnus Bluefin Tuna Tonfisk Marine Sporadic, previously native and common Not Evaluated
Sparidae Boops boops Bogue Oxögonfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sparidae Oblada melanurus N/A Oblada Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sparidae Pagellus acarne N/A Pagell Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sparidae Pagellus bogaraveo N/A Fläckpagell Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sparidae Pagellus erythrinus’’ N/A Rödpagell Marine (Sporadic) Not Evaluated
Sparidae Sparus aurata N/A Guldsparid Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sparidae Spondyliosoma cantharus N/A Havsruda Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Stichaeidae Chirolophis ascanii Yarrell's blenny Tångsnärta Marine Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Stichaeidae Leptoclinus maculatus N/A Trubbstjärtat långebarn Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Stichaeidae Lumpenus lampretaeformis N/A Spetsstjärtat långebarn Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Trachinidae Trachinus draco Greater weever Fjärsing Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Xiphiidae Xiphias gladius Swordfish Svärdfisk Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Zoarcidae Lycenchelys sarsii N/A Sydlig ålbrosme Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Zoarcidae Lycodes vahlii N/A Ålbrosme Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Zoarcidae Zoarces viviparus Viviparous Eelpout Tånglake, Ålkusa Marine, brackish water Native and common Near threatened (NT)

Petromyzontiformes (Lampreys)

A lamprey is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. In zoology, lampreys are not considered to be true fish because of their vastly different morphology and physiology.

In Sweden, the European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), living in fresh waters, is the most usual usage of the term lamprey. The Lampetra planeri is a closely related species living in small streams, possibly even the same species.

The lamprey is the provincial fish of Västerbotten in northern Sweden.

Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Petromyzontidae Lampetra fluviatilis European river lamprey Fresh water Native and common Near threatened (NT)
Petromyzontidae Lampetra planeri Brook lamprey Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Petromyzontidae Petromyzon Marineus Sea lamprey Fresh water, marine Native and common Endangered (EN)

Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes)

The family of flatfish are common as food fish.

Some notable specimens are the Turbot which is common both on Sweden's east and west coasts. The Swedish catch was as much as 82 tonnes in the 1950s, but had decreased to 10–20 tonnes by the 1980s.

The Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) is one of Sweden's most important food fishes. It is common around the shores on both the east and west coast. The catch in 1983 was 540 tonnes.

The Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) was also once a major food fish, but overfishing in recent decades has endangered the population in Swedish waters. The fish was in Sweden eaten during the weekends when meat was prohibited, which explains the Swedish name "Helgeflundra", literally "Holy Flounder".


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Bothidae (Left-eye flounders) Arnoglossus laterna N/A Tungevar Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Scophthalmidae Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis N/A Glasvar Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Scophthalmidae Phrynorhombus norvegicus N/A Småvar Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Scophthalmidae Psetta maxima Turbot Piggvar Marine Native and common Near threatened (NT)
Scophthalmidae Scophthalmus rhombus Brill Slätvar Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Scophthalmidae Zeugopterus punctatus N/A Bergvar Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae (Right-eye flounders) Glyptocephalus cynoglossus N/A Rädtunga Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae Hippoglossoides platessoides N/A Lerskädda Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae Hippoglossus hippoglossus Atlantic halibut Hälleflundra / Helgeflundra Marine Native and common Endangered (EN)
Pleuronectidae Microstomus kitt Lemon sole Bergskädda Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae Platichthys flesus N/A Skrubbskädda Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae Pleuronectes limanda N/A Sandskädda Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Pleuronectidae Pleuronectes platessa European plaice Rödspätta / Spätta Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Soleidae Buglossidium luteum N/A Småtunga Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Soleidae (Soles) Solea solea Sole Tunga Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

Scorpaeniformes

The Scorpaeniformes are also known as mail-cheeked fishes due to their suborbital stay. Their head is armoured with bone plates. The families of this order are generally small, bottom living, and unsuited as food fish. As such, they lack commercial value.

An exception is the Sebastidae family, which contains appreciated food fish but as they are rare in Swedish waters they are not subjected to systematic fishing.

Of the Triglidae family, most species are uncommon in Swedish waters, but the small Chelidonichthys gurnardus (25-30 cm) has in recent decades attracted attentions as a food fish. It is common in both the Skagerrak and Kattegat, and the total amount of fish caught in 1983 was 9 tonnes.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Agonidae Agonus cataphractus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Artediellus atlanticus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Cottus gobio Bullhead Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Cottus koshewnikowi N/A Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Cottidae Cottus poecilopus N/A Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Icelus bicornis Twohorn sculpin Marine Native and common Not Available (NA)
Cottidae Micrenophrys lilljeborgii N/A Marine Native and common Data deficiency (DD)
Cottidae Myoxocephalus scorpius N/A Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Taurulus bubalis N/A Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cottidae Triglops murrayi N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Cottidae Triglopsis quadricornis N/A Fresh water, brackish water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Cyclopteridae Cyclopterus lumpus Lumpsucker Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyclopteridae Liparis liparis N/A Marine, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Cyclopteridae Liparis montagui N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Triglidae Chelidonichthys cuculus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Triglidae Chelidonichthys gurnardus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Triglidae Chelidonichthys lastoviza N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Triglidae Chelidonichthys lucerna N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Triglidae Trigla lyra N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sebastidae Helicolenus dactylopterus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sebastidae Sebastes norvegicus N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Sebastidae Sebastes viviparus N/A Marine Native and common Near threatened (NT)

Rajiformes

The family of Rajiformes include ten families of ray-like fishes such as skates and stingrays.

Of the Rajiformes, three species are common in Nordic waters. The largest is the Blue skate, which is commons in the Skagerrak and Kattegatt west of Sweden but otherwise only sporadic. It is together with the Thumback ray (Raja clavata) the only cartilaginous fish of economical importance in Sweden.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Rajidae (skate) Amblyraja radiata N/A Marine Native and common Not Evaluated
Rajidae Dipturus batis Blue skate Marine Native and common Critically endangered (CR)
Rajidae Dipturus linteus N/A Marine Not confirmed Not Evaluated
Rajidae Dipturus nidarosiensis N/A Marine Not confirmed Not Evaluated
Rajidae Dipturus oxyrinchus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Rajidae Leucoraja fullonica N/A Marine Not confirmed Not Evaluated
Rajidae Leucoraja naevus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Rajidae Raja clavata Thumback ray Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Dasyatididae Dasyatis pastinaca N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Myliobatidae (Eagle rays) Myliobatis aquila Common eagle ray Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Squaliformes (Dogsharks)

Squaliformes is an order of sharks that includes the smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish. The most notable species here is the Greenland Shark, Somniosus microcephalus, the second largest fish in Swedish waters.


Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Etmopteridae Etmopterus spinax Velvet belly Marine Native and common Vulnerable (VU)
Somniosidae Somniosus microcephalus Greenland shark Marine Native and common Data Deficiency (DD)
Squalidae Squalus acanthias Piked dogfish Marine Native and common Endangered (EN)

Salmoniformes (Salmon-like fish)

The Salmoniformes, salmon fish, are of important both as food fish but also as for sport fishers. For sport fishers, the salmon has the foremost position due to its strength and size. In popularity, it is followed by the Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

Salmons are usually native to the marine, but a notable exception is the lake population in lake Vänern. As the salmon requires access to its native birth places through the streams, it is sensitive for power stations and other modifications of the streams. As a result, the salmon population has become extinct in some areas, but by putting out fish the population has been upheld. However, the artificial cultivation of salmon has also led to the negative side effects of diceases that have further threatened the salmon population.

The Brown Trout is conveniently divided into three species: Marine, Lake, and Stream Trouts. It was previously thought that the three species were genetically different, but recent studies are now more in favour of attributing the differences to environmental differences. The marine population is endangered for the same reasons as the salmon, but in fresh water it is still common.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Osmeridae Mallotus villosus Capelin Lodda Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Osmeridae Osmerus eperlanus European smelt Slom / Nors Fresh, brackish water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus albula Vendace Siklöja Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus maraena N/A Älvsik Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus maxillaris N/A Storsik Fresh water Native only in Sweden; common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus megalops Lacustrine fluvial whitefish Blåsik Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus nilssoni N/A Planktonsik Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus pallasii N/A Aspsik Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Coregonidae Coregonus peled Peled Storskallesik Fresh water Native and common; potential pest Critically endangered (CR)
Coregonidae Coregonus trybomi N/A Vårsiklöja Fresh water Native and common Critically endangered (CR)
Coregonidae Coregonus widegreni Valaam whitefish Sandsik Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Hucho hucho Huchen Donaulax Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus clarki Cutthroat trout Strupsnittsöring Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink salmon Puckellax Fresh and brackish water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho salmon Silverlax Fresh and brackish water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus mykiss Rainbow trout Regnbåge Fresh and brackish water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Oncorhynchus nerka Sockeye salmon Indianlax Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Salmo salar Atlantic salmon Lax Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Least Concern (LC), locally Endangered (EN)
Salmonidae Salmo trutta Brown trout Öring Fresh, marine and brackish water Native and common Least Concern (LC)
Salmonidae Salvelinus alpinus Arctic char Fjällröding Fresh water Native and common Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Salvelinus fontinalis Brook trout Bäckröding Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Salvelinus namaycush Lake trout Canadaröding Fresh water Introduced Not Evaluated
Salmonidae Salvelinus umbla N/A Storröding Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC), locally Endangered (EN)
Salmonidae Thymallus thymallus Greyling Harr Fresh water Native and common Least Concern (LC)

Stomiiformes (Dragon-like fish)

Fish of this order are deep-sea ray-finned fishes of very diverse morphology, including dragonfishes, lightfishes, marine hatchetfishes and viperfishes . Primarily residing in temperate waters they are uncommon in Swedish waters.

Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Sternoptychidae Argyropelecus olfersii N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Sternoptychidae Maurolicus muelleri Pearlsides Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Siluriformes (Catfish)

Siluriformes, or Catfish, are a diverse order of fish distinguished by prominent "barbels", which give the image of cat-like whiskers.

In Swedish waters, the only species of this order is the Wels catfish (Siluris glanis). This very large fresh water fish is common in large part of Europe and was previously prominent in many fresh waters of Sweden. Today its habitats is only confirmed in the streams Helgeån, Emån and Båven.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Siluridae Silurus glanis Wels catfish Mal Fresh water Native and common Critically endangered (CR)

Squatiniformes (Angel sharks)

The order of angel sharks are uncommon in Nordic waters. A sporadic visitor is however the Angelshark (Squatina squatina), encountered on a few occasions between 1875 and 1961.
Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Squatinidae Squatina squatina Angelshark Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Tetraodontiformes

Tetraodontiformes are ray-finned fish, most of which are marine and dwell around tropical coral reefs. As such, they are only rarely encountered in Nordic waters. The large Sunfish (Mola mola) has however in recent decades been seen with more regularly in Swedish waters, almost on a yearly basis.

Family Scientific name English name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Balistidae Balistes capriscus N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Balistidae Canthidermis maculata N/A Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated
Molidae Mola mola Ocean Sunfish Marine Sporadic Not Evaluated

Zeiformes

The order of Zeiformes are most known for the dories. Generally not native in Nordic waters, but the John Dory (Zeus faber) became an occasional visitor around Swedish coasts by the late 19th century, and has in the latest decades been seen with annual regularity, although not in such quantities that systematical fishing of it is conducted. The fish is otherwise an attractive food fish in southern Europe and other parts of the world.


Family Scientific name English name Swedish name Habitat Occurrence Red List status
Zeidae Zeus faber John dory Sanktpersfisk / Sankt Pers fisk Marine Native and common Not Evaluated

References

Resources

Literature

  • Gärdenfors, U. (red). 2005. Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2005. The 2005 Red List of Swedish species. Artdatabanken, Uppsala, 496 pp.
  • Fries, B. Fr., C. U. Ekström & C. J. Sundewall. 1836-1857. Skandinaviens Fiskar. P.A. Norstedt & Söner, Stockholm, IV+222 ss. Appendix 1-44, 1-140, pl. 1-60.
  • Kottelat, M. 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Zool., 52, suppl. 5: 1-271.

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