The following are known causes and factors related to gastritis:
The following symptoms can be a result of gastritis or can be related to the underlying cause:
In suspected cases, a doctor usually orders a barium meal test and gastroscopy to determine gastritis and related conditions such as peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. It is always important that the doctor reviews a patient's history regarding medications, alcohol intake, smoking, and other factors that can be associated with gastritis. In some cases, the appearance of the stomach lining seen during gastroscopy and the results of the barium meal test are reliable in determining gastritis and the cause. However, the most reliable method for determining gastritis is doing a biopsy during gastroscopy and checking for histological characteristics of gastritis and infection. For Helicobacter infection (the most common cause), one can test non-invasively with a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or blood antibody test.
Treatment for gastritis usually consists of removing the irritant or the infection. In cases of infection, a doctor will most often prescribe antimicrobial drugs. Helicobacter infection typically responds well to the triple therapy protocol (consisting of two antibiotics, and a proton pump inhibitor). Regimens that work well include PCA or PCM triple therapy (PPI, Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin) or (PPI, Clarithromycin, Metronidazole). Quadruple therapy has a >90% success rate and includes PPIs, Bismuth subsalicylates, Metronidazole, and Tetracycline.