The Peshwa (Marathi:पेशवा, plural Peshwe, Marathi:पेशवे) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. Prior to 1700 one Peshwa received the status of king for 8-9 years. They oversaw the greatest expansion of the Maratha Empire (Empire is a misnomer as they never directly ruled, but only collected tribute/ransom) around 1760 with the help of Sardars (Generals) like Holkar, Shinde, Bhosale, Pantprainidhi, Gayakwad, Panse, Vinchurkar, Pethe, Raste, Phadke, Patwardhan, Pawar, Pandit and Purandare, and also its eventual annexation by the British East India Company in 1818.
He can be credited for appropriate revenue administration techniques. He also played a role in planning the fort’s resources.
When Shivaji died in 1680, he was busy at development activity Salher-Mulher in Baglan-Nashik District. He died in 1683.
He recaptured many forts from Moguls during 1690-1694. Some forts he captured personally using guerilla war techniques. When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 then before leaving from Maharastra, he gave “Hukumat panha” (King Status) to Pant. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal of Vatandars, and scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratindhi, Sachiv kept the economic condition of Maratha State in a proper way. He got tremendous military help from Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav the great Maratha warriors. Many times he directly participated in war, especially during 1689-1695; he personally re-captured many forts in south Maharastra from the Moguls and played a role of shadow king in the absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.
In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of “Hukumatpanha” and Rajaram offered this post to his wife Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant in senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote a book called Adnyapatra मराठी: आज्ञापञ which explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.
The concepts in Adnyapatra and the wisdom and leadership of Tararani (Tarabai) greatly helped the Maratha empire in building the foundation of state. As he was more loyal to Tararani than Shahu, he was sidelined after the arrival of Shahu. Later the Peshwa post was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.
At the time of his death in 1749, Shahu made the Peshwas his successors under such conditions. Shivaji's descendants, who remained as the titular Raja of Satara, were called Swami (Marathi:The real Owner) by the Peshwas who reported to them, and they were to seek guidance from the Raja. However, the Peshwa also became a ceremonial head of state after the battle of Panipat and the death of Madhavrao.
From 1749 ,after death of Shahu , peshawa became head of maratha empire ,offcourse reporting to Chatrapati.
Hereafter they remained titular
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