Definitions

perturbance

1989 Pacific hurricane season

The 1989 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1989 in the Eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1989 in the Central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1989. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Notable storms include Hurricanes Cosme, Kiko, and Raymond. Cosme crossed over Mexico and contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Allison in the Atlantic. Hurricane Kiko made landfall on the Gulf of California side of the Baja California Peninsula. Hurricane Raymond was the strongest storm of the season, but weakened significantly before landfall.

Season summary

Overall, the season continued the general trend in the 1980s of near to above-average seasons in the East Pacific. Seventeen cyclones formed. Eight peaked at tropical storm strength. Nine systems became hurricanes, of which four were major hurricanes at Category 3 intensity or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

On August 28, three systems were active, one of a few times when there has been three tropical cyclones active simultaneously in the east Pacific. The systems were Kiko, Lorena, and the pre-Manuel tropical depression.

Despite the activity this season, no named storms formed in October. This was the second consecutive season this happened.

Tropical Storm Adolph

A low-level swirl of clouds organized into Tropical Depression One-E on May 31. It strengthened into a tropical storm the next day and was named Adolph. It moved west-northwest at a brisk speed and peaked as a strong tropical storm. It then slowed its forward velocity, turned to slightly south of due west, and encountered wind shear. Adolph dissipated June 5. Adolph had no impact on land.

Hurricane Barbara

A tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Two-E on the afternoon of June 15. It was upgraded the next day. A trough's wake located to the northwest of Barbara pulled the tropical cyclone in that direction. Over warm waters, Barbara became a hurricane on June 18. The storm immediately began to weaken. It weakened to a storm on June 19, and its remaining convection was sheared apart by the mext day, and Barbara dissipated on June 21. A low swirl of clouds remained visible for six days. The system was of no threat to land.

Hurricane Cosme

Tropical Depression Three-E formed from a tropical wave several hundred miles south of Acapulco that had spent two days badly organized. It strengthened into a tropical storm June 19. After spending two days nearly motionless, it turned to the north and accelerated. Cosme reached Category 1 intensity on the morning of June 21. It made landfall east of Acapulco late on June 21. It quickly weakened, and all that remained was a swirl of clouds on June 23.

Cosme's remnants merged with a tropical wave and contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Allison in the Gulf of Mexico. As Cosme had dissipated and merged with another disturbance, it is not entirely clear whether Allison was a direct continuation of Cosme or not.

Cosme brought heavy rains, which killed at least 30 people due to drowning. Many adobe homes were destroyed, but a specific cost of damage is not known.

Tropical Depression Four-E

Tropical Depression Four-E developed in east of the CPHC's area of responsibility on July 9. On July 11 it crossed into the central Pacific and remained a depression until it dissipated south of South Point, Hawaii.

Tropical Depression Five-E

This system formed slightly behind Four-E and moved into the central Pacific on July 14.

Hurricane Dalilia

The origins of Hurricane Dalilia were from a perturbance in the ITCZ. Convection increased, which suppressed the ITCZ nearby. The disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Six-E on the morning of July 11.

The depression intensified quickly, reaching storm strength one July 12 and a hurricane 24 hours later. Dalilia crossed 140°W near maximum intensity and entered the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility. The storm accelerated to a velocity of 20 knots, headed directly towards the Hawaiian Islands. Dalilia passed just south of the Hawaiian Islands as a tropical storm before dissipating July 21 as it interacted with a cold trough.

Dalilia's remnants passed over the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. They interacted with the remains of Tropical Storm Erick and reformed into a depression on July 24. The depression passed close to Midway Island, where it may have briefly become a storm again. Dalilia's dissipation, part two, occurred on July 25. A trough then accelerated the remnants towards the Aleutian Islands on July 28.

Dalilia's effects were minimal. There was high surf, and some gusty winds. Damage was minor, and mainly limited to downed power lines. Rains were heavy, including a record amount at Honolulu International Airport. On Kauai, interaction with the cold trough caused localized flooding severe enough to cause emergency evacuations from the Wainiha Valley. Dalilia's remains produced heavy rain on the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, especially French Frigate Shoals.

Tropical Depression Seven-E

Post-analysis indicated this system likely became Tropical Depression Eight-E, and later Tropical Storm Erick.

Tropical Storm Erick

A bulge in the Equatorial Trough caused by Tropical Depression Seven-E became Tropical Depression Eight-E on July 19. Under a high-level anticyclone, the depression left the ITCZ and moved west-northwestward. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Erick on July 20. Almost immediately thereafter, wind shear increased, and Erick had fallen apart by July 21. It remnants continued on a westerly course, until they were absorbed by Dalilia's remnants north of the Hawaiian Islands. Erick had no effect on land.

Tropical Storm Flossie

Tropical Depression Nine-E formed from a tropical wave on July 23. In a favourable environment, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Flossie the next day. Flossie drifted northwest. The upper-level environment rapidly changed, and Flossie's convection became disorganized. The convection separated from the center of circulation. The cluster of convection developed a new center of circulation on July 24. The original center drifted away from Flossie for half a day before dissipating.

The new center, which remarkably stayed a tropical storm, drifted northwest. Flossie then encountered an unfavourable environment, and dropped to a depression on July 25. Tropical Depression Flossie continued drifting to the northwest until dissipating July 28 while just off the coast of the Baja California Peninsula. Flossie had no effect on land.

Hurricane Gil

An area of disturbed weather located near the Mexico-Guatemala border developed a circulation in the Gulf of Tehuantepec and then dissipated. On July 30, the disturbance redeveloped a circulation and then convection. It paralleled the coast of Mexico and headed in a northwesterly direction. It strengthened into a tropical storm on July 31 and a hurricane that same day. Gil was a hurricane for only about 30 hours, and it weakened into a storm on August 2 and a depression the next day. The cyclone dissipated on August 5.

Gil was a very rainy storm, and satellite data indicated that heavy rainfall fell on mountainous portions of Mexico. It is possible that there were deaths or damage from flash-flooding, but this is not known. Gil also caused heavy rain but minimal wind on Socorro Island.

Tropical Storm Henriette

A tropical wave organized into the twelfth tropical depression of the season early on August 14. It slowly strengthened and was named Henriette after strengthening into a storm. After peaking on August 15, wind shear immediately began to weaken the cyclone. Henriette degenerated into a remnant low on August 18. The low remained for a few more days until dissipating. Henriette was of no threat to land.

Hurricane Ismael

A tropical wave became Tropical Depression Eleven-E on August 14. After strengthening into Tropical Storm Ismael and closely paralleling the coast of Mexico, Ismael turned to the west. It would maintain that generally westerly direction for the rest of its long trek across the ocean. It reached hurricane strength on August 16. In a favourable environment, Ismael reached Category 3 status and underwent fluctuations in strength.

On August 21, Ismael passed over cooler waters and encountered wind shear. The hostile environment took its toll on Ismael, and it weakened to a tropical storm on August 23. Ismael dissipated not long after weakening to a depression on August 25.

During the early stages of its life, Ismael dumped heavy rains in the area around Acapulco. Flash-flooding and landslides were reported, but fortunately there were no casualties or damage.

Tropical Storm Juliette

A perturbance in the ITCZ caused by a weakening Hurricane Ismael interacted with a tropical wave to form the thirteenth tropical depression of the season on August 21. Due to the small distance of 540 nautical miles between the cyclones, the depression followed Ismael. Despite shear caused by Ismael, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Juliette on August 22. It continued following Ismael until Ismael dissipated. Steering currents collapsed, and Juliette stalled out over cool waters in the open ocean for several days until it dissipated on the evening of August 25.

Hurricane Kiko

A "Mesoscale Convective System" over central Mexico entered the Pacific Ocean on August 24. Over the next day, a circulation developed, and the disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Fourteen-E on August 25. Intensification was rapid, and it became a tropical storm late that same day. The quick strengthening continued, and Kiko peaked with winds at 105 knots just off the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. Kiko made landfall on the eastern shore of Baja California Sur on the morning of August 27. Due to its small size and slow motion, Kiko weakened rapidly. It was a depression when it crossed into the open ocean on August 28. At that point, it started interacting with then Tropical Storm Lorena, and dissipated August 29. Kiko's remnants were eventually absorbed by Lorena.

Kiko is one of the most intense hurricanes to make landfall on the eastern side of the Baja California Peninsula. It was one of 2 major hurricanes to hit here; the other was Hurricane Olivia in 1967,but Olivia was slightly stronger (125 mph winds). The hurricane dropped up to 6 inches of rainfall in Todos Santos and caused a 5 foot storm surge in Ensenada. Kiko produced strong winds of up to 110 mph (180 km/h) in Cabo San Lucas, causing severe damage throughout the southern tip of Baja California.

Hurricane Lorena

In the Atlantic, a tropical wave spawned Tropical Depression Six. Twenty four hours later, wind shear degenerated the depression back into a wave. The wave continued westward, and in the southern Caribbean Sea, split in two on August 21. The southern part crossed Central America and emerged into the Pacific Ocean. Banding and convection steadily organized, and Tropical Depression Fifteen-E formed on August 27. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Lorena the next day.

At this time, three systems were active and in close proximity. Lorena and a weakened Kiko started a Fujiwhara interaction. Lorena emerged victorious in the three-way battle for dominance, and absorbed Kiko's remnants on August 29.

Moving slowly out to sea, Lorena reached minimal hurricane strength on the first day of September. Lorena was a hurricane for less than a day. It weakened quickly falling to a depression on September 3. The cyclone was empty of convection by September 7.

Tropical Storm Manuel

An area of thunderstorms organized into a depression on August 28 and a tropical storm the next day. Manuel gradually approached strengthened slowly, and approached to within 500 nm of Lorena. Due to its proximity to Lorena, Manuel lost its closed circulation on August 31.

Manuel's only impact on land was to produce light rainfall in the vicinity of Manzanillo, Colima. No reports of death or damage were received by the National Hurricane Center.

Tropical Storm Narda

A tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Seventeen-E on the third day of September. It moved to the west-northwest and strengthened into Tropical Storm Narda early on September 4. It quickly developed bursts of convection, which were immediately sheared off. After three days of intense shear, the convection was destroyed and Narda dropped to a depression. On September 8, advisories ended as Narda dissipated.

Narda produced breezes on Socorro Island, but otherwise had no impact on land. There were no casualties or damage.

Hurricane Octave

At low latitude in the Atlantic, Tropical Depression Nine formed from a tropical wave on August 28. The depression degenerated the next day due to strong-upper level winds. The wave continued drifting westward, and entered the Pacific Ocean on the second day of September. It slowly developed, and organized into Tropical Depression Eighteen-E on September 8.

The cyclone turned northwestward, and strengthened into Tropical Storm Octave on September 10. After strengthening into a hurricane the next day, Octave started deepening. After peaking as a Category 4 on September 13 with 135 mph winds, Octave moved into a region of cooler waters and strong shear. Octave weakened to a storm at midday on September 14 and a depression 32 hours later. The depression hooked to the east, and dissipated on September 18 near Guadalupe Island. The remnants eventually turned to the north before dissipating.

While Octave had no significant effects on land as a hurricane, its remnants did move into California. Effects were limited to minor damage to the grape and raisin crops.

Tropical Storm Priscilla

Tropical Depression Nineteen-E organized from a tropical wave on September 21. Moving northwestward, it was named Priscilla the next day. It peaked a day after it was named. Due to its northerly location of cyclogenesis, Priscilla began weakening almost immediately thereafter. The cyclone dropped to a storm on September 24 and dissipated the day after.

Priscilla formed close to land but moved away from it without impact. No reports of deaths or damage were received by the NHC.

Tropical Depression Twenty-E

This system formed southwest of Guatemala a moved very little until it dissipated on September 27.

Hurricane Raymond

Tropical Depression Twenty One-E formed from part of the same tropical wave that had earlier spawned Hurricane Hugo. Moving slowly to the west-northwest, it accelerated to the northwest in response to a trough and strengthened into the seventeenth named storm of the season on September 26. Raymond turned to the west again and entered a favourable environment. Raymond eventually peaked as a Category 4 hurricane and the strongest storm of the season on October 1.

A trough over Mexico destroyed the ridge that was steering Raymond and recurved the cyclone to the northeast. The hurricane accelerated into a less favorable environment, and slowly weakened as its forward speed increased to 20 knots. Raymond made landfall as a tropical storm on October 4. Northern Mexico's mountains disrupted Raymond's circulation, and dissipated over New Mexico on October 5 after passing over that state and Arizona as a depression. The upper level portion of its circulation whisked eastward across the southern Plains and Mid-Mississippi Valley, spreading light to moderate rains near its path.

Raymond's impact in Mexico is not known. Flash-flooding in southeast Arizona caused 1.5 million dollars in damage.

Tropical Depression Twenty Two-E

This system formed 475 miles south of Cape Corrientes and dissipated on October 4. However, it regenerated on the 7th, but dissipated again on October 8.

Tropical Depression Twenty Three-E

This system formed south of the coast of Jalisco and became unidentifiable on October 17.

Tropical Depression Twenty Four-E

This was a short-lived system that existed far from land. Convection was dampened early by strong shear.

1989 storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the eastern Pacific in 1989. No names were retired, so it was used again in the 1995 season. This is the same list used for the 1983 season, except for the names X, Y, and Z names, which were added to eastern Pacific lists starting in 1985. No central Pacific names were used; the first name used would have been Aka. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

  • Adolph
  • Barbara
  • Cosme
  • Dalilia
  • Erick
  • Flossie
  • Gil
  • Henriette
  • Ismael
  • Juliette
  • Kiko
  • Lorena
  • Manuel
  • Narda
  • Octave
  • Priscilla
  • Raymond
  • This is the last time Dalilia would be used; an error in documents before the 1995 season introduced the misspelling of "Dalila", which has remained.

    See also

    References

    1. NHC Adolph Report
    2. NHC Barbara Report
    3. NHC Cosme Report
    4. Central Pacific Hurricane Center Dalilia Report
    5. NHC Dalilia Report
    6. NHC Erick Report
    7. NHC Flossie Report
    8. ibid.
    9. NHC Gil Report
    10. NHC Henriette Report
    11. NHC Ismael Report
    12. NHC Juliette Report
    13. NHC Lorena Report
    14. NHC Lorena Report
    15. ibid.
    16. NHC Manuel Report
    17. NHC Narda Report
    18. NHC Octave Report
    19. ibid.
    20. NHC Priscilla Report
    21. HPC Raymond Rainfall Map
    22. NHC Raymond Report
    23. NHC Erick op. cit.
    24. NHC 1995 Dalilia Summary

    External links

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