or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written, spoken, poetry, prose, images, song, theater
, or dance
) that describes a sequence of fictional
or non-fictional events. It derives from the Latin
, which means "to recount" and is related to the adjective gnarus
, meaning "knowing
" or "skilled
". (Ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European
, "to know".) The word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative. An important part of narration is the narrative mode
Along with exposition, argumentation, and description, narration (broadly defined) is one of four rhetorical modes of discourse. More narrowly defined, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator is communicating directly to the reader.
Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art and most works of literature tell stories. Most of the humanities involve stories.
Stories are of ancient origin, existing in ancient Egypt, ancient Greek, Chinese, and Indian culture. Stories are also a ubiquitous component of human communication, used as parables and examples used to illustrate points. Storytelling was probably one of the earliest forms of entertainment. Narrative may also refer to psychological processes in self-identity, memory and meaning-making.
begins with the individual building blocks of meaning
— and semantics
, the way in which signs are combined into codes
to transmit messages. This is part of a general communication
system using both verbal and nonverbal elements, creating a discourse with different modalities
and forms. In On Realism in Art
, Roman Jakobson
argues that literature
does not exist as a separate entity. He and many other semioticians prefer the view that all texts, whether spoken or written, are the same except that some authors encode
their texts with distinctive literary
qualities that distinguish them from other forms of discourse. Nevertheless, there is a clear trend to address literary narrative forms as separable from other forms. This is first seen in Russian Formalism
through Victor Shklovsky
's analysis of the relationship between composition and style, and in the work of Vladimir Propp
who analyzed the plots
used in traditional folktales and identified distinct functional components. This trend continues in the work of the Prague School
and of French scholars such as Claude Lévi-Strauss
and Roland Barthes
. It leads to a structural analysis of narrative and an increasingly influential body of modern work that raises important epistemological
questions: What is text?
What is its role in the contextual culture
? How is it manifested as art, cinema, theater, or literature? How are poetry, short stories and novels of different genres
For general purposes in Semiotics and Literary Theory
, a "narrative" is a story
or part of a story. It may be spoken, written or imagined, and it will have one or more points of view
representing some or all of the participants or observers. In stories told verbally, there is a person telling the story, a narrator
whom the audience can see and/or hear, and who adds layers of meaning to the text nonverbally. The narrator also has the opportunity to monitor the audience's response to the story and to modify the manner of the telling to clarify content or enhance listener interest. This is distinguishable from the written form in which the author must gauge the readers likely reactions when they are decoding
the text and make a final choice of words in the hope of achieving the desired response.
Whatever the form, the content may concern real-world people and events. This is termed personal experience narrative. When the content is fictional, different conventions apply. The text is projecting a narrative voice, but the narrator is ontologically distant, i.e. belongs to an invented or imaginary world, and not the real world. The narrator may be one of the characters in the story. Roland Barthes describes such characters as "paper beings" and fiction comprises their narratives of personal experience as created by the author. When their thoughts are included, this is termed internal focalisation, i.e. when each character's mind focuses on a particular event, the text reflects his or her reactions.
In written forms, the reader hears the narrator's voice both through the choice of content and style (the author can encode voices for different emotions and situations, and the voices can either be overt or covert), and through clues that reveal the narrator's beliefs, values, and ideological stance, as well as the author's attitude towards people, events, and things. It is customary to distinguish a first-person from a third-person narrative (Gérard Genette uses the terms homodiegetic and heterodiegetic narrative respectively). A homodiegetic narrator describes his or her personal and subjective experiences as a character in the story. Such a narrator cannot know anything more about what goes on in the minds of any of the other characters than is revealed through their actions, whereas a heterodiegetic narrator describes the experiences of the characters who do appear in the story and, if the story's events are seen through the eyes of a third-person internal focaliser, this is termed a figural narrative. In some stories, the author may be overtly omniscient, and both employ multiple points of view and comment directly on events as they occur.
Tzvetan Todorov (1969) coined the term narratology for the structuralist analysis of any given narrative into its constituent parts to determine their function(s) and relationships. For these purposes, the story is what is narrated as usually a chronological sequence of themes, motives and plot lines. Hence, the plot represents the logical and causal structure of a story, explaining why the events occur. The term discourse is used to describe the stylistic choices that determine how the narrative text or performance finally appears to the audience. One of the stylistic decisions may be to present events in a non-chronological order, say using flashbacks to reveal motivations at a dramatic moment.
Narration as a fiction-writing mode
As do so many words in the English language, narration
has more than one meaning. In its broadest context, narration encompasses all written fiction. More narrowly, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator communicates directly to the reader.
Along with exposition
, and description
(broadly defined) is one of four rhetorical modes
of discourse. In the context of rhetorical modes, the purpose of narration is to tell a story or to narrate an event or series of events. Narrative may exist in a variety of forms: biographies, anecdotes, short stories, novels. In this context, all written fiction may be viewed as narration.
Narrowly defined, narration is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator is communicating directly to the reader. But if the broad definition of narration includes all written fiction, and the narrow definition is limited merely to that which is directly communicated to the reader, then what comprises the rest of written fiction? The remainder of written fiction would be in the form of any of the other fiction-writing modes. Narration, as a fiction-writing mode, is a matter for discussion among fiction writers and writing coaches.
Within philosophy of mind
, the social sciences
and various clinical fields including medicine, narrative can refer to aspects of human psychology. A personal narrative process is involved in a person's sense of personal or cultural identity, and in the creation and construction of memories
, and is thought by some to be the fundamental nature of the self
. The breakdown of a coherent or positive narrative has been implicated in the development of psychosis
and mental disorder
, and its repair said to play an important role in journeys of recovery
. Narrative Therapy
is a school of (family) psychotherapy.
Other specific applications
- A narrative case study is a case study that tells a story.
- Narrative environment is a contested term that has been used for techniques of architectural or exhibition design in which 'stories are told in space' and also for the virtual environments in which computer games are played and which are invented by the computer game authors.
- Narrative film is film which uses filmed reality to tell a story, often as a feature film.
- Narrative history is a genre of factual historical writing that uses chronology as its framework (as opposed to a thematic treatment of a historical subject).
- Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story.
- Metanarrative, sometimes also known as master- or grand narrative, is a higher-level cultural narrative schema which orders and explains knowledge and experience.
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