Colonial sea squirts reproduce both asexually and sexually. Sexually produced individuals, those that develop from fertilized eggs, first settle and mature on substratum, then bud asexually to form a colony of many small individuals. Embryonic development takes place within the established colony: eggs are fertilized and brooded in the atrium. Colonies can survive for decades.
The dramatic rearrangement of egg cytoplasm following fertilization, called ooplasmic segregation, determines the dorsoventral and anteroposterior axes of the embryo. There are at least three types of sea squirt egg cytoplasm: ectoplasm containing vesicles and fine particles, endoderm containing yolk platelets, and myoplasm containing pigment granules, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. In the first phase of ooplasmic segregation, the myoplasmic actin-filament network contracts to rapidly move the peripheral cytoplasm (including the myoplasm) to the vegetal pole, which marks the dorsal side of the embryo. In the second phase, the myoplasm moves to the subequatorial zone and extend into a crescent, which marks the future posterior of the embryo. The ectoplasm with the zygote nucleus ends up at the animal hemisphere while the endoplasm ends up in the vegetal hemisphere.
Over the last few hundred years, most of the world's harbors have been invaded by non-native sea squirts that have clung to ship hulls or to introduced organisms such as oysters and seaweed. Several factors, including quick attainment of sexual maturity, tolerance of a wide range of environments, and a lack of predators, allow sea squirt populations to grow rapidly. Unwanted populations on docks, ship hulls, and farmed shellfish cause significant economic problems, and sea squirt invasions have disrupted the ecosystem of several natural sub-tidal areas by smothering native animal species.
Sea squirts are the natural prey of many animals, including nudibranchs, flatworms, molluscs, rock crabs, starfish, fish, birds, and sea otters. They are also eaten by humans in many parts of the world, including Japan, Korea, Chile, and Europe (where they are sold under the name “sea violet”). As chemical defenses, many sea squirts intake and maintain an extremely high concentration of vanadium in the blood, have a very low pH of the tunic due to acid in easily-ruptured bladder cells, and (or) produce secondary metabolites harmful to predators and invaders. Some of these metabolites are toxic to cells and are of potential use in pharmaceuticals.
Despite bearing distinctive aragonite spicules, the fossil record of the sea squirts is almost entirely lacking - a dubious Silurian specimen being the only contender.
Microcosmus sabatieri and several similar species from the Mediterranean Sea are eaten in France (figue de mer, violet), Italy (limone di mare, uova di mare) and Chile (piure), consumed both raw and used as ingredients in seafood stews like bouillabaisse.
A number of factors make sea squirts good models for studying the fundamental developmental processes of chordates, such as cell-fate specification. The embryonic development of sea squirts is simple, rapid, and easily manipulated. Because each embryo contains relatively few cells, complex processes can be studied at the cellular level, while remaining in the context of the whole embryo. The embryo's transparency is ideal for fluorescent imaging and its maternally-derived proteins are naturally pigmented, so cell lineages are easily labeled, allowing scientists to visualize embryogenesis from beginning to end.
Sea squirts are also valuable because of their unique evolutionary position: as an approximation of ancestral chordates, they can provide insight into the link between non-chordate deuterostomes and chordates, as well as the origination of vertebrates. The sequenced genomes of the related sea squirts Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi are small and easily manipulated; comparisons with the genomes of other organisms such as flies, nematodes, pufferfish and mammals provides valuable information regarding chordate evolution. A collection of over 480,000 cDNAs have been sequenced and are available to support further analysis of gene expression, which is expected to provide information about complex developmental processes and regulation of genes in vertebrates. Gene expression in embryos of sea squirts can be conveniently inhibited using Morpholino oligos.
Researchers from Colorado State University Publish New Studies and Findings in the Area of Reproduction and Fertility.
Apr 10, 2012; Current study results from the report, "173 comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization,...