Twenty miles of overhead cable were also erected from Cranstal south to Ramsey, and on to Douglas. In England, the telegraph was connected to Whitehaven and the circuits of the Electric Telegraph Company.
The telegraph offices were located at 64 Atholl Street, Douglas (also the company's head office) and at East Quay, Ramsey (now Marina House).
The currents at Cranstal proved too strong, and in 1864 the cable was taken up and relaid further south, at Port-e-Vullen in Ramsey Bay. It was later relaid to land even further south at Port Cornaa.
Following the 1869 finalisation of UK telegraph nationalisation into a General Post Office monopoly, the Isle of Man Telegraph Company was nationalised in 1870 under the Telegraph Act 1870 (an Act of Parliament) at a cost to the British Government of £16,106 (paid in 1872 following arbitration proceedings over the value). Prior to nationalisation, the island's telegraph operations had been performing poorly and the company's share price valued it at around £100.
Subsequent to nationalisation, operations were taken over by the GPO. The internal telegraph system was extended within a year to Castletown and Peel, however by then the previous lack of modern communications in Castletown had already started the Isle of Man Government on its move to Douglas.
Due to increasing usage in the years following nationalisation, further cables between Port Cornaa and St Bees were laid in 1875 and 1885.
By 1883 Smith's Directory listed several telegraph offices operated by the Post Office, in addition to those at Douglas, Ramsey, Castletown and Peel the telegraph was also available at Laxey, Ballaugh, and Port St. Mary.
Throughout the First World War, the cable landing station at Port Cornaa was guarded by the Isle of Man Volunteer Corps.
The undersea telegraph cables have been disused since the 1950s, but remain in place.
In 1889 George Gillmore, formerly an electrician for the GPO's Manx telegraph operations, was granted a licence by the Postmaster General to operate the Isle of Man's first telephone service. Based in an exchange in Atholl Street, early customers of Gilbert's telephone service included the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company and the Isle of Man Railway. Not having the resources to fund expansion or a link to England, Gillmore sold his licence to the National Telephone Company and stayed on as their manager on the island.
By 1901 there were 600 subscribers, and the telephone system had been extended to Ramsey, Castletown, Peel, Port Erin, Port St. Mary and Onchan.
On 1 January 1912, the National Telephone Company was nationalised and merged into the General Post Office by the Telephone Transfer Act 1911. Only Guernsey, Portsmouth and Hull remained outside of the GPO.
The first off-island telephone link was established in 1929, with the laying of a cable by the CS Faraday between Port Erin and Ballyhornan in Northern Ireland, a distance of 57 km, and then between Port Grenaugh and Blackpool, primarily to provide a link to Northern Ireland. The cable was completed on 6 June 1929, and the first call between the Isle of Man and the outside world was made on 28 June 1929 by Lieutenant Governor Sir Claude Hill in Douglas to the Postmaster General in Liverpool. The cable initially carried only two trunk circuits.
In 1942, a pioneering VHF frequency-modulated radio-link was established between Creg-na-Baa and the UK to provide an alternative to the sub-sea cable.
This was augmented on 24 June 1943 by a 74km long cable between Cemaes Bay in Anglesea and Port Erin, which had the world's first submerged repeater, laid by HMCS Iris. The repeater doubled the possible number of circuits on the cable, and although it failed after only five months, its replacement worked for seven years.
In 1962 a further undersea cable was laid by HMTS Ariel between Colwyn Bay and the Island.
Historically, the telephone system on the Isle of Man had been run as a monopoly by the British General Post Office, and later British Telecommunications, and operated as part of the Liverpool telephone district.
By 1985 the privatised British Telecom had inherited the telephone operations of the GPO, including those on the Isle of Man. At this time the Manx Government announced that it would award a 20-year licence to operate the telephone system in a tender process. As part of this process, in 1986 British Telecom created a Manx-registered subsidiary company, Manx Telecom, to bid for the tender. It was believed that a local identity and management would be more politically acceptable in the tendering process as they competed with Cable & Wireless to win the licence. Manx Telecom won the tender, and commenced operations under the new identity from 1 January 1987.
On 28 March 1988 an 8000 telephone circuit fibre optic cable, the longest unregenerated system in Europe, was inaugurated. In links Port Grenaugh to Silecroft in Cumbria, and was laid in September 1987. The cable was buried in the seabed along it's entire length.
A further fibre optic cable, known as BT-MT1 was laid in October 1990 between Millom in Cumbria and Douglas, a distance of 43 nautical miles. Jointly operated by BT and Manx Telecom, it provides six channels each with a bandwidth of 140 Mb/s. This cable remains in use today.
In July 1992, Mercury Communications laid the LANIS fibre-optic cables. LANIS-1 runs for 61 nautical miles between Port Grenaugh and Blackpool, and LANIS-2 runs for 36 nautical miles between the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland. They have six channels each with a bandwidth of 565 Mb/s. The LANIS cables are now operated by Cable & Wireless. The LANIS-1 cable was damaged on 27 November 2006 600m off Port Grenaugh, causing loss of the link and resulting in temporary Internet access issues for some Manx customers whilst it was awaiting repair.
In December 2007, the Manx Electricity Authority and its telecoms subsidiary, e-llan Communications, commissioned the lighting of a new undersea fibre-optic link. It was laid in 1999 between Blackpool and Douglas as part of the Isle of Man to England Interconnector which connects the Manx electricity system to the UK's National Grid.
According to the CIA World Factbook, in 1999 there were 51,000 fixed telephone lines in use in the Isle of Man.
The Isle of Man is included within the UK telephone numbering system, and is accessed externally via UK area codes, rather than by its own country calling code. The area codes currently in use are: +44 1624 (landlines) and +44 7624/7924 (mobiles).
Submarine cables in Manx waters are governed by the Submarine Cables Act 2003 (an Act of Tynwald).
BBC national radio stations are also relayed locally via a transmitter located to the south of Douglas, relayed from Sandale transmitting station in Cumbria. The Douglas transmitter also broadcasts the BBC's DAB digital radio services and Classic FM.
Manx Radio is the only local service to broadcast on AM medium wave. No UK services are relayed via local AM transmitters. No longwave stations operate from the Island, although one (Musicmann279) was proposed.
A Channel 4 operated DAB multiplex is proposed, but there are currently no proposals to broadcast any of the three insular FM stations on DAB.
Many TV services are available by satellite, such as Sky Digital, and Freesat from the Astra 2/Eurobird 1 group, as well as services from a range of other satellites around Europe such as Astra 1 and Hotbird.
Analogue television transmission will cease between 2008 and 2009, and limited local transmission of digital terrestrial television will then commence. The UK's television licence regime extends to the Island.
ITV television has been available on the Isle of Man since 1 September 1961 when Border Television was launched, initially only directly from the Caldbeck transmitting station in Cumbria. On 26 March 1965, Border Television commenced relay of their signal through a local transmitter on Richmond Hill, 542 ft above sea level and three miles from the centre of Douglas. The site allowed reliable reception of the Calbeck signal, which is rebroadcast on a different frequency. The 200 ft high transmission tower was re-sited from London, where it had been used for early ITV transmissions.
The four analogue channels are now transmitted from a 195 ft high transmitter on a hill to the south of Douglas. The transmitter is operated by National Grid Wireless and rebroadcasts signals received from Caldbeck. There are further sub-relay transmitters across the island.
The Broadcasting Act 1993 (An Act of Tynwald) allows for the establishment of local television services. Only one application for a licence to run such a service was received by the Communications Commission. That application was rejected.
According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 1999 there were 27,490 televisions in use in the Isle of Man.
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