Pepper

Pepper

[pep-er]
Pepper, Claude Denson, 1900-1989, U.S. Senator (1936-51) and Representative (1962-89), b. Dudleyville, Ala. He was admitted (1928) to the bar, practiced law in Florida, and held many state offices. Elected to the Senate as a Democrat, Pepper proved himself an ardent supporter of social-reform measures and a strong advocate of international cooperation and rights for the elderly. He was defeated in the 1950 Democratic primary for nomination to the U.S. Senate but was later elected to the House of Representatives.
Pepper, George Wharton, 1867-1961, American jurist, b. Philadelphia. He practiced law in Philadelphia and was (1893-1910) professor of law at the Univ. of Pennsylvania. Pepper was appointed in 1922 to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Boies Penrose, and, elected on the Republican ticket later the same year, he served in the Senate until 1927. He wrote many books on law and was also the author of In the Senate (1930) and Family Quarrels (1931).

See his autobiography, Philadelphia Lawyer (1944).

pepper, name for the fruits of several unrelated Old and New World plants used as spices or vegetables or in medicine.

Old World (True) Peppers

Black pepper (Piper nigrum), the true pepper, is economically the most important species of the pantropical pepper family (Piperaceae). It is native to Java, whence it was introduced into other tropical countries. A perennial climbing shrub, it bears pea-sized fruits, the peppercorns of commerce. Black pepper, sold whole or ground, is the dried whole fruit; white pepper, made by removing the dark outer hull, has a milder and less biting flavor. Pepper owes its pungency to a derivative of pyridine. In the earliest days of commerce black pepper was a great luxury and a staple article of trade between India and Europe. So high was its price that a few pounds made a royal gift, and the great demand was one of the causes of the search for a sea route to the East. Pepper was valued by Hippocrates for its medicinal properties as a heart and kidney stimulant, and it is still used as a powder or tincture, as a local irritant or liniment, or as a gargle. Many other species of Piper are used medicinally throughout the tropics. The leaves of the betel pepper (P. betle) of the Indomalaysian region are a principal ingredient of the masticatory betel.

Cubeb is the name for the berry and for the oil obtained from the unripe berry of the East Indian climbing shrub P. cubeba. The dried fruits are sometimes used as a condiment or are ground and smoked in cigarette form as a catarrh remedy. The oil is used medicinally and also in soap manufacture. The masticated roots of kava, P. methysticum, widely grown in its native Pacific islands, are made into a beverage called kavakava, which contains soporific alkaloids. It is an integral part of religious and social life there. A preparation of kava for commerce, also called kavakava, is sold widely as an herbal remedy for anxiety and insomnia.

New World Peppers

The red peppers, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of America and widely cultivated elsewhere, are various species of Capsicum (of the nightshade family), especially the numerous varieties of C. frutescens. These bushy, woody-stemmed plants were cultivated in South America prior to the time of Columbus, who is said to have taken specimens back to Europe. The "hot" varieties include cayenne pepper, whose dried ground fruit is sold as a spice, and the chili pepper, sold similarly as a powder or in a sauce (one variety is known in the United States by the trade name Tabasco). The chili pepper is much used in cooking in Mexico, where some 200 varieties are known. Paprika (the Hungarian name for red pepper) is a ground spice from a less pungent variety widely cultivated in Central Europe.

The pimiento, or Spanish pepper, with a small fruit used as a condiment and for stuffing olives, and the sweet red and green peppers, with larger fruits used as table vegetables and in salads, are mild types. (The pimiento should not be confused with the pimento or allspice, of the myrtle family.) A variety of C. frutescens with delicate leaves and cherrylike fruit is grown as an ornamental and house plant.

Classification

True pepper is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Piperales, family Piperaceae.

or garden pepper

Red peppers (Capsicum annuum) from which paprika is made

Any of many plants in the genus Capsicum of the nightshade family, notably C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. boccatum, native to Central and South America and cultivated extensively throughout tropical Asia and the equatorial New World for their edible, pungent fruits. Red, green, and yellow mild bell or sweet peppers, rich in vitamins A and C, are used in seasoning and as a vegetable food. The pungency of hot peppers, including tabasco, chili, and cayenne peppers, comes from the compound capsaicin in the internal partitions of the fruit. The spice black pepper comes from an unrelated plant.

Learn more about pepper with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or pepper

Perennial, woody climbing vine (Piper nigrum) of the family Piperaceae, native to India; also, the hotly pungent spice made from its berries. One of the earliest spices known, pepper is probably the most widely used spice in the world today. It early became an important article of overland trade between India and Europe. The plant is cultivated throughout Indonesia and has been introduced into tropical areas elsewhere. It has broad, shiny leaves and dense, slender spikes of small flowers. The small berrylike fruits are called peppercorns. Seealso pepper.

Learn more about black pepper with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 8, 1900, Dudleyville, Ala., U.S.—died May 30, 1989, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Florida before being elected to the U.S. Senate (1937–51), where he supported legislation that created Social Security, a minimum wage, and medical assistance for the elderly. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1963–89), he chaired the committee on aging and sponsored legislation abolishing mandatory retirement in federal agencies and raising the retirement age to 70 in the private sector (1968). In 1989 he was awarded the Medal of Freedom.

Learn more about Pepper, Claude (Denson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 8, 1900, Dudleyville, Ala., U.S.—died May 30, 1989, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Florida before being elected to the U.S. Senate (1937–51), where he supported legislation that created Social Security, a minimum wage, and medical assistance for the elderly. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1963–89), he chaired the committee on aging and sponsored legislation abolishing mandatory retirement in federal agencies and raising the retirement age to 70 in the private sector (1968). In 1989 he was awarded the Medal of Freedom.

Learn more about Pepper, Claude (Denson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Pepper may refer to:

Plants

The genus Piper of the pepper family (Piperaceae), including for example:

The genus Capsicum of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), including for example:

The genus Pimenta of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), including for example:

Pepper trees

Pepperwoods

and also:

People

Fictional People

(imdb.com says her character's name was Suzanne "Pepper" Anderson.)

Music

Other

Search another word or see pepperon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;