Penn

Penn

[pen]
Penn, Arthur Hiller, 1922-, American director, brother of Irving Penn, b. Philadelphia; studied Black Mountain College and the Actors' Studio, Los Angeles. Penn, who often deals with themes of alienation in American life, began directing for television during the late 1940s. His Broadway credits include Two for the Seesaw (1958), The Miracle Worker (1959, Tony Award; film, 1962), and Toys in the Attic (1960). His first film, The Left-Handed Gun (1958), a psychologically probing study of Billy the Kid, was also an adaptation of a television drama. Penn's masterpiece, Bonnie and Clyde (1967), is a darkly brilliant study of the Depression-era outlaws that combines high drama with comedy, social comment, and extreme violence. Displaying an offbeat take on several screen genres, his other movies include Micky One (1965), Alice's Restaurant (1969), Little Big Man (1960), Night Moves (1975), and The Missouri Breaks (1976). Among his later, less commercially successful films are Four Friends (1981), Dead of Winter (1987), and Inside (1996).
Penn, Irving, 1917-2009, American photographer, elder brother of Arthur Penn, b. Plainfield, N.J.; studied Philadelphia Museum School of Industrial Art (1934-38). Originally a painter, Penn began working working for Vogue in 1943 and became one of America's most successful fashion photographers, known for his cool, refined, and glamorously stylized images. In portraiture, Penn used plain backgrounds and natural light and was famously adept at capturing the essence of his sitter's personality. He photographed many of the world's most famous people and also traveled worldwide to capture other human subjects. As beautifully composed as his figural work, Penn's still lifes form a kind of collective memento mori in their concentration on the ruined and the ephemeral—cigarette butts, fragments of objects, fruit pits, chewed gum, and the like. A superb technician, from the 1960s on he printed his photographs using an arduous platinum-based process that produces great permanence and imparts uniquely deep, velvety, and luminous tones to his images. His work has been exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City; the National Gallery, Washington, D.C.; the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles; and at the Art Institute of Chicago, which owns his archives.

See his Moments Preserved (1960), Worlds in a Small Room (1974), Passage (1991), People in Passage (1992), and Irving Penn: A Career in Photography (1997); study by J. Szarkowski (1984).

Penn, John, 1729-95, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania, b. London. A grandson of William Penn, he was the last proprietary official of the colony. He was under the domination of the Penn family in his two administrations (1763-71, 1773-76). During that time Pennsylvania was torn by a bitter struggle between those who favored proprietary government and those who sought to end it. Penn lost power when the proprietary government was displaced (1776) during the American Revolution. He yielded to the course of events, however, and remained in Philadelphia until his death.
Penn, John, 1740?-1788, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Caroline co., Va. A lawyer, Penn moved (1774) to North Carolina and was (1775-77, 1778-80) a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Penn, Thomas, 1702-75, colonial proprietor of Pennsylvania, b. Bristol, England; son of William Penn. Coming to Philadelphia, he managed (1732-41) the proprietary rights he inherited with his brothers and thereafter remained in charge of the colony's business in England. His letters to his governors are of historical significance.
Penn, Sir William, 1621-70, British admiral. In the English civil war he served in Parliament's naval forces, and he joined the pursuit (1651-52) of Prince Rupert in the Mediterranean. He served in the first Dutch War and in 1654 was made commander of the fleet that sailed for the West Indies and captured Jamaica (1655). He was arrested shortly after his return to England and imprisoned briefly before being allowed to retire to his Irish estates. The reason for his disgrace has never been definitely established. It probably had nothing to do with his secret negotiations with the exiled Charles II, who, when restored to the throne, knighted Penn (1660) and made him a commissioner of the navy. In the second Dutch War Penn was second in command to the duke of York (later James II) in the action of the fleet in 1665 and retired to shore duty when the duke was relieved of command. Penn's son was William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania.

See G. Penn, Memorials … of Sir William Penn (1833).

Penn, William, 1644-1718, English Quaker, founder of Pennsylvania, b. London, England; son of Sir William Penn.

Early Life

He was expelled (1662) from Oxford for his religious nonconformity and was then sent by his father to the Continent to overcome his leanings toward Puritanism. He continued his religious studies, however, and in Ireland, where he had been sent (1666) to oversee the family estates, he became a staunch member of the Society of Friends. He was imprisoned (1668) for writing a tract (The Sandy Foundation Shaken) against the doctrine of the Trinity, but, undaunted, he wrote No Cross, No Crown and Innocency with Her Open Face while in the Tower of London. After his release (1669), Penn continued his writing, his many tracts including The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (1670), in which he argued for religious toleration. He also went on preaching missions through England, the Netherlands, and Germany.

In the American Colonies

Penn became involved in the affairs of the American colonies when in 1675 he was appointed a trustee for Edward Byllynge, one of the two Quaker proprietors of West Jersey. He helped draw up Concessions and Agreements, a liberal charter of government for the Quakers settling there. In 1681, Penn and 11 others purchased East Jersey (see New Jersey). In the same year, in payment of a debt owed his father, Penn obtained from King Charles II a charter for Pennsylvania (named by the king for Penn's father) for the establishment of his "holy experiment," a colony where religious and political freedom could flourish. Shortly afterward he received a grant of the Three Lower Counties-on-the-Delaware (present Delaware) from the duke of York (later James II).

In 1682, Penn went to his province, where the earliest settlers were already laying out the city of Philadelphia in accordance with his plans. He drew up a liberal Frame of Government for the colony. He also established the friendly relations with the Native Americans that were to distinguish the early history of Pennsylvania. Returning to England (1684), he asserted his boundary claims against Charles Calvert, 3d Lord Baltimore.

Penn's friendship with James II led to his being accused of treason after that king's deposition (1688), and his colony was briefly (1692-94) annexed to New York. Penn continued writing religious and political tracts and preached extensively. Difficulties in Pennsylvania caused his return there for a short time (1699-1701), and he issued a new constitution, the Charter of Privileges (1701), granting more power to the provincial assembly.

Penn's last years were troubled ones. His own steward swindled him to such an extent that he was imprisoned (1707-8) for debt, and the continued difficulties of his colony and troubles concerning his eldest son caused him much grief. A stroke in 1712 removed him from active life.

Bibliography

See M. M. and R. S. Dunn, ed., The Papers of William Penn (5 vol., 1981-87); biographies by W. I. Hull (1937) and M. M. Dunn (1967); A. Pound, The Penns of Pennsylvania and England (1932); E. C. O. Beatty, William Penn as Social Philosopher (1939, repr. 1974); V. Buranelli, The King & the Quaker (1962); M. B. Endy, Jr., William Penn and Early Quakerism (1973).

Will Rogers.

(born Nov. 4, 1879, Indian Territory, U.S. [near present-day Claremore, Okla.]—died Aug. 15, 1935, near Point Barrow, Alaska) U.S. humorist and actor. Raised in Indian Territory, he demonstrated his rope-twirling skills in Wild West shows and vaudeville and gradually wove bits of homespun wit into his act. He was popular in New York City from 1905 and starred in Florenz Ziegfeld's Midnight Frolic (1915). Noted for his good-natured but sharp criticism of current affairs, he wrote a newspaper column in the New York Times (from 1922) as well as several books. He performed on radio and in movies such as State Fair (1933) and Steamboat Round the Bend (1935). His death in a plane crash in Alaska with the aviator Wiley Post (1899–1935) was widely mourned.

Learn more about Rogers, Will(iam Penn Adair) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 14, 1644, London, Eng.—died July 30, 1718, Buckinghamshire) English Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania. Expelled from Oxford for his Puritan beliefs, he was sent to manage the family estates in Ireland, where he joined the Society of Friends in 1667. He was imprisoned four times for stating his Quaker beliefs in print and in speech; one of his trials resulted in the precedent-setting Bushell's Case, which established the independence of juries. In The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (1670), Penn advocated religious toleration and envisioned a colony based on religious and political freedom. On his father's death, he inherited his estates and his influence with Charles II, who granted him a vast province on the Delaware River in payment for debts owed his father. In 1682 he drafted a Frame of Government that established freedom of worship in the settlement. Upon his arrival later that year, he negotiated a series of treaties with the local Indians. In 1684 he traveled to England to defend his interests against claims by neighbouring Maryland. With the accession of his friend the duke of York as James II, he secured the release of imprisoned Quakers. He returned to Pennsylvania in 1699, where he wrote the Charter of Privileges, which allowed the assembly greater autonomy. The years after his return to England in 1701 were clouded by debt and illness.

Learn more about Penn, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 24, 1905, Guthrie, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1989, Stratton, Vt.) U.S. novelist, poet, and critic. Warren attended Vanderbilt University, where he joined the Fugitives, a group of poets who advocated the agrarian way of life in the South. Later he taught at several colleges and universities and helped found and edit The Southern Review (1935–42), possibly the most influential American literary magazine of the time. His writings often treat moral dilemmas in a South beset by the erosion of its traditional rural values. His best-known novel is All the King's Men (1946, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1949). The short-story volume The Circus in the Attic (1948) contains the notable “Blackberry Winter.” He won Pulitzer prizes for poetry in 1958 and 1979 and became the first U.S. poet laureate in 1986.

Learn more about Warren, Robert Penn with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Will Rogers.

(born Nov. 4, 1879, Indian Territory, U.S. [near present-day Claremore, Okla.]—died Aug. 15, 1935, near Point Barrow, Alaska) U.S. humorist and actor. Raised in Indian Territory, he demonstrated his rope-twirling skills in Wild West shows and vaudeville and gradually wove bits of homespun wit into his act. He was popular in New York City from 1905 and starred in Florenz Ziegfeld's Midnight Frolic (1915). Noted for his good-natured but sharp criticism of current affairs, he wrote a newspaper column in the New York Times (from 1922) as well as several books. He performed on radio and in movies such as State Fair (1933) and Steamboat Round the Bend (1935). His death in a plane crash in Alaska with the aviator Wiley Post (1899–1935) was widely mourned.

Learn more about Rogers, Will(iam Penn Adair) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 24, 1905, Guthrie, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1989, Stratton, Vt.) U.S. novelist, poet, and critic. Warren attended Vanderbilt University, where he joined the Fugitives, a group of poets who advocated the agrarian way of life in the South. Later he taught at several colleges and universities and helped found and edit The Southern Review (1935–42), possibly the most influential American literary magazine of the time. His writings often treat moral dilemmas in a South beset by the erosion of its traditional rural values. His best-known novel is All the King's Men (1946, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1949). The short-story volume The Circus in the Attic (1948) contains the notable “Blackberry Winter.” He won Pulitzer prizes for poetry in 1958 and 1979 and became the first U.S. poet laureate in 1986.

Learn more about Warren, Robert Penn with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 14, 1644, London, Eng.—died July 30, 1718, Buckinghamshire) English Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania. Expelled from Oxford for his Puritan beliefs, he was sent to manage the family estates in Ireland, where he joined the Society of Friends in 1667. He was imprisoned four times for stating his Quaker beliefs in print and in speech; one of his trials resulted in the precedent-setting Bushell's Case, which established the independence of juries. In The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (1670), Penn advocated religious toleration and envisioned a colony based on religious and political freedom. On his father's death, he inherited his estates and his influence with Charles II, who granted him a vast province on the Delaware River in payment for debts owed his father. In 1682 he drafted a Frame of Government that established freedom of worship in the settlement. Upon his arrival later that year, he negotiated a series of treaties with the local Indians. In 1684 he traveled to England to defend his interests against claims by neighbouring Maryland. With the accession of his friend the duke of York as James II, he secured the release of imprisoned Quakers. He returned to Pennsylvania in 1699, where he wrote the Charter of Privileges, which allowed the assembly greater autonomy. The years after his return to England in 1701 were clouded by debt and illness.

Learn more about Penn, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 16, 1917, Plainfield, N.J., U.S.) U.S. photographer. He aspired to be a painter but at 26 took a job designing photographic covers for Vogue and soon was established as a fashion photographer. His austere fashion images communicated elegance and luxury through compositional refinement and clarity of line rather than through the use of elaborate props and backdrops. He branched out into portraiture after World War II and became much admired as a portraitist of celebrities. In his portraits the subject is usually posed before a bare backdrop and photographed in natural northern light. The resulting images combine simplicity and directness with great formal sophistication.

Learn more about Penn, Irving with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 16, 1917, Plainfield, N.J., U.S.) U.S. photographer. He aspired to be a painter but at 26 took a job designing photographic covers for Vogue and soon was established as a fashion photographer. His austere fashion images communicated elegance and luxury through compositional refinement and clarity of line rather than through the use of elaborate props and backdrops. He branched out into portraiture after World War II and became much admired as a portraitist of celebrities. In his portraits the subject is usually posed before a bare backdrop and photographed in natural northern light. The resulting images combine simplicity and directness with great formal sophistication.

Learn more about Penn, Irving with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Penn is a borough in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 460 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Penn is located at (40.329018, -79.640141).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.2 square miles (0.4 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 460 people, 182 households, and 133 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,974.7 people per square mile (1,184.0/km²). There were 187 housing units at an average density of 1,209.3/sq mi (481.3/km²). The racial makeup of the borough was 96.52% White, 1.52% African American, 1.09% from other races, and 0.87% from two or more races.

There were 182 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 18.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the borough the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males.

The median income for a household in the borough was $35,962, and the median income for a family was $40,481. Males had a median income of $32,031 versus $22,875 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $14,312. About 4.4% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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