See his Moments Preserved (1960), Worlds in a Small Room (1974), Passage (1991), People in Passage (1992), and Irving Penn: A Career in Photography (1997); study by J. Szarkowski (1984).
See G. Penn, Memorials … of Sir William Penn (1833).
He was expelled (1662) from Oxford for his religious nonconformity and was then sent by his father to the Continent to overcome his leanings toward Puritanism. He continued his religious studies, however, and in Ireland, where he had been sent (1666) to oversee the family estates, he became a staunch member of the Society of Friends. He was imprisoned (1668) for writing a tract (The Sandy Foundation Shaken) against the doctrine of the Trinity, but, undaunted, he wrote No Cross, No Crown and Innocency with Her Open Face while in the Tower of London. After his release (1669), Penn continued his writing, his many tracts including The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (1670), in which he argued for religious toleration. He also went on preaching missions through England, the Netherlands, and Germany.
Penn became involved in the affairs of the American colonies when in 1675 he was appointed a trustee for Edward Byllynge, one of the two Quaker proprietors of West Jersey. He helped draw up Concessions and Agreements, a liberal charter of government for the Quakers settling there. In 1681, Penn and 11 others purchased East Jersey (see New Jersey). In the same year, in payment of a debt owed his father, Penn obtained from King Charles II a charter for Pennsylvania (named by the king for Penn's father) for the establishment of his "holy experiment," a colony where religious and political freedom could flourish. Shortly afterward he received a grant of the Three Lower Counties-on-the-Delaware (present Delaware) from the duke of York (later James II).
In 1682, Penn went to his province, where the earliest settlers were already laying out the city of Philadelphia in accordance with his plans. He drew up a liberal Frame of Government for the colony. He also established the friendly relations with the Native Americans that were to distinguish the early history of Pennsylvania. Returning to England (1684), he asserted his boundary claims against Charles Calvert, 3d Lord Baltimore.
Penn's friendship with James II led to his being accused of treason after that king's deposition (1688), and his colony was briefly (1692-94) annexed to New York. Penn continued writing religious and political tracts and preached extensively. Difficulties in Pennsylvania caused his return there for a short time (1699-1701), and he issued a new constitution, the Charter of Privileges (1701), granting more power to the provincial assembly.
Penn's last years were troubled ones. His own steward swindled him to such an extent that he was imprisoned (1707-8) for debt, and the continued difficulties of his colony and troubles concerning his eldest son caused him much grief. A stroke in 1712 removed him from active life.
See M. M. and R. S. Dunn, ed., The Papers of William Penn (5 vol., 1981-87); biographies by W. I. Hull (1937) and M. M. Dunn (1967); A. Pound, The Penns of Pennsylvania and England (1932); E. C. O. Beatty, William Penn as Social Philosopher (1939, repr. 1974); V. Buranelli, The King & the Quaker (1962); M. B. Endy, Jr., William Penn and Early Quakerism (1973).
There were 182 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 18.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.4% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the borough the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $35,962, and the median income for a family was $40,481. Males had a median income of $32,031 versus $22,875 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $14,312. About 4.4% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.