The penduline tits are a family of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. All but the Verdin and Fire-capped Tit make elaborate bag nests hanging from trees (whence "penduline", hanging), usually over water; inclusion of the Fire-capped Tit in this family is disputed by some authorities.
The penduline tits' typical plumage colors are pale grays and yellows and white, though the European Penduline Tit has black and chestnut markings and some species have bright yellow or red (Perrins 2003).
All live in Eurasia and Africa except the Verdin, which lives in arid parts of the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. Most live in open country with trees or bushes, ranging from desert to marsh to woodland, but the Forest Penduline Tit lives in rain forest. They spend most of the year in small flocks (Perrins 2003).
Of the two species with aberrant nests, the Verdin builds a domed nest out of thorny twigs and the Fire-capped Tit nests in tree holes that it lines. The eggs are white, with red spots in some species; the Verdin lays blue-green eggs with red spots. Incubation lasts about 13 or 14 days, and the nestlings fledge at about 18 days (Perrins 2003).
Sometimes, these birds are included as subfamily Remizinae in the titmice family Paridae. Which taxonomical lineup one prefers is a matter of taste; that these families are close relatives is well established by now. If the penduline tits are included in the Paridae, the stenostirid "warblers" would have to be included as another subfamily, while if they are considered a separate family, the Sultan Tit and the Yellow-browed Tit would possibly need to be excluded from the Paridae (Gill et al. 2005; Jønsson & Fjeldsa 2006).
There are 13 species in 5 genera, following Harrap & Quinn (1996):
Sexual conflict and consistency of offspring desertion in Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus.(Research article)
Sep 01, 2008; Authors: Ákos Pogány (corresponding author) ; István Szentirmai ; Jan Komdeur ; Tamás Székely BackgroundEvolutionary...
US Patent Issued to Penduline 2 Trading (Proprietary) on Jan. 15 for "System for and a Method of Heating Water" (South African Inventor)
Jan 21, 2013; ALEXANDRIA, Va., Jan. 21 -- United States Patent no. 8,355,625, issued on Jan. 15, was assigned to penduline 2 Trading...