In humans, the only joints between shoulder girdle and axial skeleton are the sternoclavicular joints on each side. No joint exists between each scapula and the thoracic cage, instead the muscular connection between the two permits relatively great mobility of the shoulder girdle in relation to the pelvic girdle.
In those species having only the scapula, no joint exists between the forelimb and the thorax, the only attachment being muscular.
Dynamic Properties of the Upper Thoracic Spine-Pectoral Girdle (UTS-PG) System and Corresponding Kinematics in PMHS Sled Tests
Oct 01, 2012; ABSTRACT -Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine...