Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich

Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich

Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich, 1849-1936, Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist. He was professor at the military medical academy and director of the physiology department at the Institute for Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, from 1890. Pavlov was a skillful ambidextrous surgeon; using dogs as experimental animals, he established fistulas from various parts of the digestive tract by which he obtained secretions of the salivary glands, pancreas, and liver without disturbing the nerve and blood supply. For his work on the physiology of the digestive glands he received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Using the same technique to create an artificial exterior pouch of the stomach, he experimented on nervous stimulation of gastric secretions and thus discovered the conditioned reflex (see behaviorism), which has had widespread influence in neurology and psychology. He also demonstrated that specific areas in the cerebral cortex are concerned with specific reflexes and based on these findings a mechanistic theory of human behavior that found political favor; in 1935 the government built a laboratory for him. His chief work was Conditioned Reflexes (1926, tr. 1927).

See biography by B. P. Babkin (1949); studies by E. Strauss (1963), H. Cuny (tr. 1965), and I. P. Frolov (tr. 1937, repr. 1970).

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.

(born Sept. 26, 1849, Ryazan, Russia—died Feb. 27, 1936, Leningrad) Russian physiologist. He is known chiefly for the concept of the conditioned reflex. In his classic experiment, he found that a hungry dog trained to associate the sound of a bell with food salivated at the sound even in the absence of food. He expanded on Charles Sherrington's explanation of the spinal reflex. He also tried to apply his laws to human psychoses and language function. His ability to reduce a complex situation to a simple experiment and his pioneering studies relating human behaviour to the nervous system laid the basis for the scientific analysis of behaviour. After the Russian Revolution, he became an outspoken opponent of the communist government. He won a 1904 Nobel Prize for his work on digestive secretions.

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Pavlov and its feminine form Pavlova are common Russian (Па́влов, Па́влова) and Bulgarian family names. Their Ukrainian variant is Pavliv. All stem from Christian name Paul (Russian: Pavel; Ukrainian: Pavlo). These names may refer to many people and things:

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