In various European countries, student caps of different types are or have been worn, either as a marker of a common identity, as is the case in the Nordic countries, or to identify the bearer as member of a smaller corporation within the larger group of students, as is the case with the caps worn by members of German Studentenverbindungen.
The Finnish student cap tradition follows the Swedish model, like many other Finnish academic traditions. The Finnish student cap has an appearance similar to the Swedish version, but instead of coloured fabric cockade, it has a metallic, gold-colored cockade depicting the lyra of Apollon, the insignia of the University of Helsinki. The cap was introduced in its present form in 1870s. Until 1950's, the university students usually wore the cap during the whole summer holiday of the university, from Walpurgis Night until the end of september. Nowdays, the cap is used mostly during the 1st of May and in academic ceremonies and occasions. The cap is worn by all Finnish high school (lukio) graduates.
Until 1917, the matriculation examination was the entrance exam of the University of Helsinki, which meant that formally, all high-school graduates were, at least formally, students of the University of Helsinki. As a memory of that period, all new student cap have the cocakade of the Student union of the University of Helsinki. In many Finnish universities, the student union recommend that the students change the cockade into a university-specific one.
In late 19th century, the language strife between Swedish- and Finnish-speakers divided the Finnish academia. The size of the cockade was used to signal the student's opinion to the language question: the Swedish-speaking students wore a cockade with a diameter of 22 mm, moderate Finnish-speakers a 16 mm cockade and radical Finnish-speakers a 14 mm cockade. Even today, the Swedish-speakers use the 22 mm cockade, while the graduates of Finnish-speaking high schools use a 16 mm cockade.
The lining, i.e. the inside, of the cap symbolizes the regional identity of the graduate. Especially in earlier days, the students usually choose the lining to have the colours of their own student nations. Nowadays, the most typical lining is the white and blue, symbolizing common patriotism. However, the Swedish-speaking students usually wear red and yellow, or blue, yellow and white, while in Satakunta and North Karelia, the regional colours are still popular.
As in Sweden, the students of Engineering usually wear a special student cap (teekkarilakki) with a long tassel. However, unlike in Sweden, the crown of the Finnish Engineering student cap is always white and the cap has a gold-coloured, university-specific cockade. The tassel is always black and worn without any additions. The lining of the engineering caps is dark red, symbolizing the social change brought about by the ever-advancing technology, except in Lappeenranta University of Technology, where Karelian colours, red and black, are used. The Engineering student caps are worn by present engineering students and graduate engineers on 1st of May and in academic ceremonies.
The Swedish student cap (studentmössa), used since the mid-19th century, normally has a white crown, a black or dark blue band and a black peak. At the front of the band is a cockade of blue and yellow, the colours of the Swedish flag.
In the Nordic countries, student caps were first adopted as a common mark of recognition by the students from Uppsala University on the occasion of a Scandinavian student meeting in Copenhagen in 1845. In the following years similar caps were adopted by the students at the other Swedish university (Lund) and by the students in Denmark, Norway and Finland. Caps of the same type are known to have been used by German students in the early 19th century, and it is possibly that the original impulse came from Germany.
Swedish student caps traditionally come in two main variants, named after the two universities in existence at the time of their original adoption. The Uppsala cap has a black band, blue and yellow lining and a somewhat soft crown, while the Lund cap has a dark blue band, red lining and a stiffer crown. The earliest student cap known to have been preserved, a mid-19th century Uppsala cap in the collections of the Nordic Museum but currently exhibited at the Uppland Provincial Museum (in Uppsala), is considerably softer and looser in style than the modern or even late 19th century caps.
The Uppsala cap is traditionally only worn only in summer, from Walpurgis Night until the end of September. In Lund, the white cap is also donned at Walpurgis and taken off in the fall, but students can exchange it for a winter variant with a dark blue crown during the rest of the year.
A major variation on the student cap is the one worn by engineering students, the teknologmössa, which has the same basic shape as the regular student cap but has a triangular flap hanging down on the right side ending in a tassel. The cap for engineering students usually come in dark winter and white summer versions. The tasseled cap originates at the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, where it was first introduced in 1879, and is influenced by the Norwegian student cap, the duskelue, which from 1856 had a tassel; during the period of the Swedish-Norwegian union (until 1905) a large number of Norwegian students studied at Chalmers. It later spread to the Royal Institute of Technology and the other Swedish engineering schools.
Originally associated with completion of the studentexamen, the entrance examination to the universities, which was at the time of the original adoption of student caps always taken at the universities, the cap followed the studentexamen to the secondary schools when these took over the final examination of their students in 1864. After this point it was donned upon graduation by everybody who completed the studentexamen, whether they continued to university or not.
As the studentexamen in reality remained reserved for boys (and later girls) from the bourgeoisie, a very large proportion of whom did enroll at university, the conversion of the cap to a form of secondary school graduation cap did not in fact result in the cap losing its association with university students. To some extent this happened later, through the combination of two factors: firstly, the radicalism of the 1960s and 1970s, which influenced many students to stop using their caps (regarded as a sign of belonging to the bourgeoisie) or even burn them publicly. Secondly, the simultaneous (1968) reform of the secondary school system, through the abolition of the studentexamen and the introduction of a large number of secondary school programmes, many of which were vocational in character and not intended to prepare for higher studies but all frequently co-existing in the same schools.
The large number of new programmes introduced after 1970 also led to a proliferation of new types of student caps, such as the one with a red band (instead of the black or dark blue band of the traditional caps) used by students completing the two-year vocational programmes. With the caps now being used upon graduation by almost all secondary school students, and with many of the caps being more strongly associated with the secondary school attended than with the common identity as a Swedish student, as had originally been intended. Some of the graduates from vocational programme have variations in the colouring of the brim in accordance with their programme. Examples include burgundy for nursing, green for horticulture and blue for engineering (only on the Uppsala model). In addition, most hats also have a thin coloured hatband to signify the student’s programme. Colours include green for natural sciences, royal blue for social sciences and silver for construction. There are also schools that have their own variants of the Student cap with special insignia and or variations.
In Denmark, the student caps (studenterhue) are the last remains of the old school uniform of the University of Copenhagen . They came in two colours: black for the winter uniform [in the 1800s with black jacket and long black trousers] and white for the summer uniform. The caps are worn by students who have completed an upper secondary level education. The student cap is made by linen with a black brim and is supplied with a band and a cockade with a Dannebrog cross or other badge. The design varies after which exam it represents.
When this school uniform vanished in the late 1800s, the two caps came to denote two different kinds of studentereksamen: the classical-linguistic exam with the black student’s cap and the white for the modern language + mathematical exams. Both with a Bordeaux-coloured band.
When the student cap came out, it was only connected to studentereksamen (STX) which at that time was the only upper secondary level education there was, and was connected to a very high status, because very few people graduated. From the 1970’s three other upper secondary level educations were made. Higher Preparatory Examination (HF), Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX), and Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX). From about 1990 there has also been student caps for other educations, including 10th grade and SOSU. More variants of the caps are still being developed with special coloured cords and badges, because more educations want their own cap.
There is a long list of traditions with the Danish student cap. They have, of course, been changed and will vary from place to place. Here are a few:
Upper secondary level educations with caps
| Studentereksamen (stx)|
STX-student (regular student)
|3 years||Bordeaux||Dannebrog cross|
| Higher Preaparatory Examination (HF)|
|2 years||Light blue||Dannebrog cross|
| Higher Commercial Examination Programme (HHX/HH)|
|3 years||Blue||Mercury stick|
| Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX)|
HTX-student (technical student)
|3 years||Dark blue||“HTX”|
| International baccalaureate (IB)|
IB-student (international student)
|2 years||Bordeaux with international flags||Mercury stick|
|STX + 1-year HHX||3 years + 1 year||Bordeaux (top) and blue (bottom)||Mercury stick|
|HF + 1-year HHX||2 years + 1 year||Light blue (top) and blue (bottom)||Mercury stick|
|HTX plus 1-year HHX||3 years + 1 year||Dark blue (top) and blue (bottom)||Mercury stick|
Other educations with caps
- for folkeskole and career aimed educations
|10th grade (FS10)||1 year||Green||Dannebrog cross|
| Higher Commercial Examination Programme |
|2 out of 4 years||Dark purple||Mercury stick|
| Farming schools|
|3½ years||Green||Dannebrog cross|
|PGU||1 year and 7½ months||Orange||Dannebrog cross|
|SOSU-helper||1 year and 2 months||Light purple||Dannebrog cross|
|SOSU-assistant||2 years and 10 months||Bordeaux (top) and blue (bottom)||Dannebrog cross|
|Hairdresser||4 years||Pink||Dannebrog cross|
|HTX plus 1-year HHX||4 years||Yellow||Dannebrog cross|
The cross isn’t a Christian badge, but the caps can have other badges for example:
At each high-school and or junior college ceremonial graduation the graduating students are allowed to wear their student caps for the first time. Know simply as "stúdentahúfa", the Icelandic student caps have the same shape and colour as the other traditional nordic student caps of Sweden and Denmark, they however tend to have a slightly tighter fit.
It has a white crown, a black band and a black peak. At the front of the band is a silver star.
One of the caps disitinctive traits is the possibilty of removing the top white crown, which in return reveals a black version of the cap´s crown. This is due to the Icelandic tradition dictating that after an entire year as a graduate and after finishing a year of university education the student may remove the white cover-piece, signifying his or hers academic status as a univeristy "stúdent". This pratice has its roots in the traditions concerning the black caps of the Danish students.
The first Icelandic students to wear these caps where graduates of "Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík" or "Reykjavík College". In modern times different versions have been introduced. These caps often have different coloured crowns which differ from the traditional white coloured crown. This is done in order to allow students which graduate at secondary level from schools specialising in academic trade- industry- and/or craftmen-programs, "iðnskóli". The colours of these crowns are often red or green.
The calotte originates from the skullcap worn by the Zouave papal regiment around 1860. The calotte is cylindrical, made from velvet and astrakhan (pelt of newborn lamb. The color of the top is bordeau red for the universities of Brussels, Leuven, Louvain-la-Neuve and Namur, white for the university of Ghent and emerald for the university of Liège.
In the front of the calotte are stripes representing the Belgian flag (black, yellow and red) and stripes representing the colors of the city or the university where the calotte has been received. At the back of the calotte, the faculty of the student is represented by a color and a symbol, with if needed an additional symbol to determine the speciality. Golden stars around the calotte represent the number of years that the student has studied successfully (if a year has to be retaken, a silver star will represent it). In addition to that, a number of official and personal pins will be added to the calotte, all representing something about its owner examples include:
The calotte is awarded after a rite of passage called Corona (from Latin crown, for the shape of the assembly) by numerous student unions called Ordres, Cercles and Régionales to hundreds of students each year.
Requirements to get the calotte vary, but always include a minimum time spent on the given campus, a knowledge of the calotte, Latin formulae and student songs.