Definitions

Paolo

Paolo

Soleri, Paolo, 1919-, Italian-American architect. He studied architecture in Turin (Ph.D., 1946). Soleri's works have been influenced by both Frank Lloyd Wright, with whom he worked, and Antonio Gaudí. He developed an architecture that expresses a functional and organic way of life. Soleri has produced extraordinary designs for vast, high-density, self-sufficient, and multilevel communities built in the desert. These, which he terms arcologies, are proposed alternatives and responses to the increased problems of overpopulation and urban sprawl and decay. Soleri and his students and assistants have been building an arcology, Arcosanti, north of Phoenix, Ariz. since 1970. It was conceived as a prototype to show how cities might be updated, minimizing energy and transportation use while promoting human interaction. Soleri is the author of Arcology: The City in the Image of Man (1969).

See his Sketchbooks (1971); J. Strohmeier, ed., The Urban Ideal: Conversations with Paolo Soleri (2000); D. Wall, Visionary Cities: The Arcology of Paolo Soleri (1970); A. I. Lima, Paolo Soleri: Architecture, or Human Ecology (2000, tr. 2001).

Sarpi, Paolo, 1552-1623, Venetian councillor, theologian, and historian. In 1565 he became a Servite friar and later theologian and adviser to the republic. In the conflict that developed in 1606 between Venice and Pope Paul V he staunchly defended in his writings the right of the state to control ecclesiastic matters. In 1607 his prestige was increased when he was wounded in an attempt, said to be sponsored by the pope, to seize him by force. His most important work is his history of the Council of Trent (published in London in 1719), in which he viewed the council as the triumph of papal absolutism and centralization.
Veronese, Paolo, 1528-88, Italian painter of the Venetian school. Named Paolo Caliari, he was called Il Veronese from his birthplace, Verona. Trained under a variety of minor local artists, he was more influenced by the works of Giulio Romano, Parmigianino, and particularly Titian. His early specialty was decorative fresco, most of which are now lost. In 1555 he was in Venice, where he began to develop his characteristic opulent use of color. His talent was quickly recognized. Commissioned to work on the ceilings in the ducal palace, he painted Age and Youth and Hera Presenting Gifts to Venice. His pictures are crammed with figures arranged in a sinuous spatial pattern. Complex mannerist devices are evident in the Giustiniani altarpiece (San Francesco della Vigna, Venice) and in the many works he executed for the Church of San Sebastian. About 1566 he decorated the villa at Maser (near Vicenza). Depicting landscapes, mythological scenes, and portraits, he achieved ingenious examples of illusionism.

Veronese is known chiefly for his religious feast scenes, which he interpreted in a notably secular manner, as in the Supper at Emmaus (Louvre), Marriage at Cana (1562; Louvre), and Feast in the House of the Pharisee (c.1570; Milan). In these scenes he emphasized splendor of color and lavish accessories, banquet delicacies, highly fashionable courtiers, soldiers, musicians, horses, dogs, apes, and magnificent buildings. In 1573 the artist was called before the Inquisition because certain details in his depiction of the Last Supper were considered irreverent. He defended himself valiantly and ultimately changed the title of the work to Feast in the House of Levi (now in the Academy, Venice). In 1576 he painted one of his most famous works, The Rape of Europa, now in the ducal palace. After the fire of 1577 he was employed in the reconstruction of the ducal palace, where he executed the splendid Triumph of Venice and Venice Ruling with Justice and Peace.

Veronese ranks among the greatest of Venetian decorative painters for his harmonious tonalities and rich textures. Many of his works are in American museums, including Venus and Mars United by Love (Metropolitan Mus.), The Choice between Virtue and Vice and The Choice between Wisdom and Strength (Frick Coll., New York City), Lady with her Daughter (Walters Art Gall., Baltimore), Creation of Eve (Art Inst., Chicago), a family portrait (California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco), two allegorical paintings (Los Angeles County Mus. of Art), and a family portrait and Rest on the Flight to Egypt (Ringling Mus. of Art, Sarasota, Fla).

See biography by A. Orliac (1940); studies by W. R. Rearick (1987), A. Priver (2001), P. De Vecchi et al. (2004) and R. Cocke (2002 and 2005).

Uccello, Paolo, c.1396-1475, Florentine painter. Uccello was little appreciated in his own time, and much of his work has been destroyed or is in poor condition. Although first apprenticed to Ghiberti, he later shows the influence of Masaccio. In 1425 he went to Venice and worked on mosaics for St. Mark's. After about five years he returned to Florence and painted Creation scenes in the cloister of Santa Maria Novella. In 1436 he was commissioned to paint an equestrian figure of Sir John Hawkwood in monochrome for the cathedral. He also depicted four prophets for the clockface of the cathedral. Uccello's most significant contribution is his cycle of Noah for Santa Maria Novella. According to Vasari, he represented the dead, the tempest, the fury of the winds, and the terror of men. Indeed, in the Deluge he combined a rigorous system of perspective with details of unsparing realism. Uccello's most famous scenes are from the Battle of San Romano (Uffizi; Louvre; and National Gall., London), notable for their rich, decorative panoply, for their solid, wooden toylike figures and for the experiments he made in foreshortening.

See his complete works ed. by J. Pope-Hennessy (2d ed. 1969).

Caliari, Paolo: see Veronese, Paolo.
orig. Paolo Caliari

(born 1528, Verona, Republic of Venice—died April 9, 1588, Venice) Italian painter. Son of a stonecutter from Verona, he was apprenticed at 13 to a painter. After 1553, when he received the first of many commissions in Venice, he became a major painter of the 16th-century Venetian school, a group of Renaissance artists known for their splendid use of colour and pageantlike compositions. His first works in Venice, ceiling paintings for the Doges' Palace, employ skillful foreshortenings that make figures appear to be floating in space. He decorated the villas and palaces of the Venetian nobility and received many commissions for frescoes, altarpieces, and devotional paintings, including numerous “suppers” (e.g., The Pilgrims of Emmaus and Feast in the House of the Pharisees) that allowed him to compose large groups of figures in complex Renaissance architectural settings. In decorating a villa built by Andrea Palladio at Maser (circa 1561), he brilliantly interpreted its architectural structure, breaking through the walls with illusionistic landscapes and opening the ceilings to blue skies with figures from Classical mythology. Whimsical details in his Last Supper (commissioned 1573) caused him to be summoned before the Inquisition. Painters from the 16th century on were inspired by his use of colour to express exuberance as well as to model form.

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orig. Paolo di Dono

(born 1397, Pratovecchio, near Florence—died Dec. 10, 1475, Florence) Italian painter. Though apprenticed to the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, he is not known to have worked in sculpture, and at 18 he was admitted to the painters' guild in Florence. The Deluge, one of his frescoes in the Chiostro Verde of Santa Maria Novella, demonstrates his intense study of perspective. He became so firmly identified with perspective that John Ruskin thought he had invented it. His three panels depicting the Battle of San Romano, like all the extant works of his mature years, combine the decorative late Gothic style with the new heroic style of the early Renaissance.

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(born June 21, 1919, Turin, Italy) Italian-born U.S. architect. After receiving a doctorate from Turin Polytechnic, he worked under Frank Lloyd Wright in Arizona (1947–49). In 1959 he began to draw up plans for a series of compact urban centres that would extend vertically into space rather than horizontally along the ground. These megastructures were designed to conserve energy and resources (partly through reliance on solar energy and elimination of automobile use within the city), preserve natural surroundings, and condense human activities within integrated total environments. Soleri coined the term arcology (from “architecture” and “ecology”) to describe his utopian constructions, which he delineated in drawings of great beauty and imagination. In 1970 he began constructing a prototype town called Arcosanti, for a population of 5,000, between Phoenix and Flagstaff, Ariz. The work, by students and volunteers, is still in progress.

Learn more about Soleri, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 14, 1552, Venice—died Jan. 14, 1623, Venice) Italian patriot, scholar, and state theologian. At age 20 Sarpi became court theologian to the duke of Mantua, a post that gave him leisure to study Greek, Hebrew, mathematics, anatomy, and botany. Later, as consultor to the government, he incurred the wrath of Pope Paul V by supporting Venice's right to restrict church construction in the city and to try priests accused of crimes unrelated to religion (e.g., murder) in the state's courts. His History of the Council of Trent (1619), an important work decrying papal absolutism, was published under a pseudonym; though placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum, it went through several editions and five translations in 10 years.

Learn more about Sarpi, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 5, 1922, Bologna, Italy—died Nov. 2, 1975, Ostia, near Rome) Italian film director, poet, and novelist. He wrote novels about Rome's slum life as well as a significant body of poetry. Pasolini became a screenwriter in the mid-1950s, collaborating most notably on Federico Fellini's Nights of Cabiria (1956). His directorial debut, Accattone (1961), was based on his novel A Violent Life (1959). His best-known film, stylistically unorthodox and implicitly radical, is perhaps The Gospel According to Saint Matthew (1964). Later films include Oedipus Rex (1967), Teorema (1968), Medea (1969), The Canterbury Tales (1972), and The Arabian Nights (1974), which won a special jury prize at Cannes. His use of eroticism, violence, and depravity were criticized by Italian religious authorities.

Learn more about Pasolini, Pier Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 5, 1922, Bologna, Italy—died Nov. 2, 1975, Ostia, near Rome) Italian film director, poet, and novelist. He wrote novels about Rome's slum life as well as a significant body of poetry. Pasolini became a screenwriter in the mid-1950s, collaborating most notably on Federico Fellini's Nights of Cabiria (1956). His directorial debut, Accattone (1961), was based on his novel A Violent Life (1959). His best-known film, stylistically unorthodox and implicitly radical, is perhaps The Gospel According to Saint Matthew (1964). Later films include Oedipus Rex (1967), Teorema (1968), Medea (1969), The Canterbury Tales (1972), and The Arabian Nights (1974), which won a special jury prize at Cannes. His use of eroticism, violence, and depravity were criticized by Italian religious authorities.

Learn more about Pasolini, Pier Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Paolo Caliari

(born 1528, Verona, Republic of Venice—died April 9, 1588, Venice) Italian painter. Son of a stonecutter from Verona, he was apprenticed at 13 to a painter. After 1553, when he received the first of many commissions in Venice, he became a major painter of the 16th-century Venetian school, a group of Renaissance artists known for their splendid use of colour and pageantlike compositions. His first works in Venice, ceiling paintings for the Doges' Palace, employ skillful foreshortenings that make figures appear to be floating in space. He decorated the villas and palaces of the Venetian nobility and received many commissions for frescoes, altarpieces, and devotional paintings, including numerous “suppers” (e.g., The Pilgrims of Emmaus and Feast in the House of the Pharisees) that allowed him to compose large groups of figures in complex Renaissance architectural settings. In decorating a villa built by Andrea Palladio at Maser (circa 1561), he brilliantly interpreted its architectural structure, breaking through the walls with illusionistic landscapes and opening the ceilings to blue skies with figures from Classical mythology. Whimsical details in his Last Supper (commissioned 1573) caused him to be summoned before the Inquisition. Painters from the 16th century on were inspired by his use of colour to express exuberance as well as to model form.

Learn more about Veronese, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Paolo di Dono

(born 1397, Pratovecchio, near Florence—died Dec. 10, 1475, Florence) Italian painter. Though apprenticed to the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, he is not known to have worked in sculpture, and at 18 he was admitted to the painters' guild in Florence. The Deluge, one of his frescoes in the Chiostro Verde of Santa Maria Novella, demonstrates his intense study of perspective. He became so firmly identified with perspective that John Ruskin thought he had invented it. His three panels depicting the Battle of San Romano, like all the extant works of his mature years, combine the decorative late Gothic style with the new heroic style of the early Renaissance.

Learn more about Uccello, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 21, 1919, Turin, Italy) Italian-born U.S. architect. After receiving a doctorate from Turin Polytechnic, he worked under Frank Lloyd Wright in Arizona (1947–49). In 1959 he began to draw up plans for a series of compact urban centres that would extend vertically into space rather than horizontally along the ground. These megastructures were designed to conserve energy and resources (partly through reliance on solar energy and elimination of automobile use within the city), preserve natural surroundings, and condense human activities within integrated total environments. Soleri coined the term arcology (from “architecture” and “ecology”) to describe his utopian constructions, which he delineated in drawings of great beauty and imagination. In 1970 he began constructing a prototype town called Arcosanti, for a population of 5,000, between Phoenix and Flagstaff, Ariz. The work, by students and volunteers, is still in progress.

Learn more about Soleri, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 14, 1552, Venice—died Jan. 14, 1623, Venice) Italian patriot, scholar, and state theologian. At age 20 Sarpi became court theologian to the duke of Mantua, a post that gave him leisure to study Greek, Hebrew, mathematics, anatomy, and botany. Later, as consultor to the government, he incurred the wrath of Pope Paul V by supporting Venice's right to restrict church construction in the city and to try priests accused of crimes unrelated to religion (e.g., murder) in the state's courts. His History of the Council of Trent (1619), an important work decrying papal absolutism, was published under a pseudonym; though placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum, it went through several editions and five translations in 10 years.

Learn more about Sarpi, Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Giovanni Paolo Panini

(born 1691, Piacenza, Duchy of Parma and Piacenza—died 1765, Rome) Italian painter. After gaining fame for his fresco painting, he specialized in Roman topography and became the foremost artist in that field in the 18th century. His real and imaginary views of ancient Roman ruins embody precise observation and tender nostalgia and combine elements of late classical Baroque art with incipient Romanticism. His work was popular both with tourists and his peers: he was admitted to the Académie Française in 1732 and became its professor of perspective.

Learn more about Pannini, Giovanni Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1403, Siena, Republic of Siena—died 1482, Siena) Italian painter active in Siena. A prolific artist, he produced his most characteristic works from the 1440s, notably the monumental altarpiece The Presentation of Christ in the Temple (1447–49), 12 scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist, and a Madonna (1463) altarpiece in Pienza Cathedral. He also painted countless other religious panels. His tormented spirituality and expressionistic style were little appreciated until his reputation was revived in the 20th century.

Learn more about Giovanni di Paolo (di Grazia) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Giovanni Paolo Panini

(born 1691, Piacenza, Duchy of Parma and Piacenza—died 1765, Rome) Italian painter. After gaining fame for his fresco painting, he specialized in Roman topography and became the foremost artist in that field in the 18th century. His real and imaginary views of ancient Roman ruins embody precise observation and tender nostalgia and combine elements of late classical Baroque art with incipient Romanticism. His work was popular both with tourists and his peers: he was admitted to the Académie Française in 1732 and became its professor of perspective.

Learn more about Pannini, Giovanni Paolo with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Paolo may refer to:

  • A typical Italian given name, Anglicized as Paul.''
  • The paolo was a papal silver coin, first struck during the 16th century under Pope Paul III and named after him. It circulated throughout the Papal States with a value roughly equivalent to the giulio. Similar coins were circulated locally in other Italian states; one was produced in Tuscany from the 16th to the 19th century.

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