- For locks of hair on the sides of the face, see payot; for the village in Azerbaijsn, see Payız.
Pais is a red wine grape that has played a prominent role in the Chilean wine industry. Up until the turn of the 21st century, it was Chile's most planted variety until it was overtaken by Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is most commonly used in the creation of jug wine in the Bío-Bío, Maule and Itata River regions in the south. The grape is sometimes known as Negra Peruana. In Argentina the grape is known as Criolla Chica.
The Pais has one of the longest viticultural
history in Chile, believed to have been brought to the region by Spanish conquistadors
during their colonization of the continent
in the 16th century. Ampelographers
believe that along with the Criolla Grande
grape of Argentina
grape of California
, that the Pais grape is descended by the Spanish "common black grape" brought to Mexico
in 1520 by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés
. That early grape was then cultivated by Spanish missionaries
and spread throughout the Americas
. The Pais remained Chile's primarily wine grape until the emergence of the Bordeaux wine varietal
in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Viticulture and wine
Pais produces a thin bodied, rustic red wine that typically has a light brown coloring. The grape's thin skin does not provide much extract
and vineyard owners typically harvest
at much higher yields
then what would be needed to produce higher quality wines. The grape is valued for vigor and ease of cultivation, producing 8-13 tons
even with limited amounts of irrigation
. It is mostly consumed domestically but some sweet dessert wines
have been exported
in the past.