Pais or Pães, Sidónio, 1872-1918, Portuguese dictator. After service in the army he was a professor of mathematics at the Univ. of Coimbra and a leader in establishing the republic in 1910. He held several cabinet posts and was minister in Berlin until Portugal entered World War I (1916). In Dec., 1917, Pais overthrew the democratic regime and made himself president. He exercised dictatorial powers that foreshadowed the Carmona and Salazar regime, although he was more populist than they. He was assassinated in Dec., 1918.
For locks of hair on the sides of the face, see payot; for the village in Azerbaijsn, see Payız.

Pais is a red wine grape that has played a prominent role in the Chilean wine industry. Up until the turn of the 21st century, it was Chile's most planted variety until it was overtaken by Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is most commonly used in the creation of jug wine in the Bío-Bío, Maule and Itata River regions in the south. The grape is sometimes known as Negra Peruana. In Argentina the grape is known as Criolla Chica.


The Pais has one of the longest viticultural history in Chile, believed to have been brought to the region by Spanish conquistadors from Peru during their colonization of the continent in the 16th century. Ampelographers believe that along with the Criolla Grande grape of Argentina and Mission grape of California, that the Pais grape is descended by the Spanish "common black grape" brought to Mexico in 1520 by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés. That early grape was then cultivated by Spanish missionaries and spread throughout the Americas. The Pais remained Chile's primarily wine grape until the emergence of the Bordeaux wine varietal in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Viticulture and wine

Pais produces a thin bodied, rustic red wine that typically has a light brown coloring. The grape's thin skin does not provide much extract and vineyard owners typically harvest at much higher yields then what would be needed to produce higher quality wines. The grape is valued for vigor and ease of cultivation, producing 8-13 tons per acre even with limited amounts of irrigation. It is mostly consumed domestically but some sweet dessert wines have been exported in the past.


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