Paul was a Professor at various colleges in Kerala, at Thrissinappally, St. Thomas College Thrissur, SB College Changanassery and Thiruvananthapuram. He started a private tutorial college (MP Paul's Tutorial College) which is regarded as the best "parallel" tutorial college Kerala has ever seen. He published a weekly Navakeralam and a monthly Cherupushpam. He acted as the president of the Kerala Purogamana Saahitya Sanghatana for some time. However he gradually distanced himself from the organization owing to differences in opinion.
M. P. Paul's most significant contribution was as a literary critic. He introduced a modern approach to literary criticism in Malayalam. He had started working on an English-Malayalam Dictionary, but could not complete it.
He was unrelenting in his opposition to religious orthodoxy, and earned the wrath of the Christian church in Kerala. When he died in 1952, the clergy refused to bury his body in the Church Cemetery. His brother, who was a monsignor in the Catholic Church, was refused permission to attend the funeral. This is ironic since the hymns composed by Paul are still sung in churches in Kerala today.
See also: Jeevithathil Ninnum Oru Aedu