Owen

Owen

[oh-uhn]
Wister, Owen, 1860-1938, American author, b. Philadelphia, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1882; LL.B., 1888). Trips to the West for his health gave him material for his short stories and for his greatest success, The Virginian (1902), a novel about Wyoming cowhands. He wrote several biographies, including one in 1930 on his friend Theodore Roosevelt. His other books include the novel Lady Baltimore (1906) and the short stories "Lin McLean" (1898) and "Jimmyjohn Boss" (1900). His collected works, in 11 volumes, appeared in 1928. The journals of his Western travels from 1885 to 1895 were published in 1958 as Owen Wister Out West.
Lattimore, Owen, 1900-1989, American author and educator, b. Washington, D.C. He was educated (1915-19) at St. Bees School, Cumberland, England, and did graduate research (1928-29) at Harvard. From 1920 to 1926 he was engaged in business and newspaper work in China. Afterward he traveled and did research for various organizations in China, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Chinese Turkistan, writing such books as Manchuria: Cradle of Conflict (1932) and The Mongols of Manchuria (1934). He was (1938-50) director of the Page School of International Relations at Johns Hopkins. In 1950 he was accused by Senator Joseph McCarthy of being the Soviet Union's top espionage agent in the United States, but subsequent investigation cleared him of the charges. In 1952, Lattimore was indicted for perjury on seven counts by a federal grand jury on the charge that he had lied when he told a Senate internal security subcommittee earlier in 1952 that he had not promoted Communism and Communist interests; by 1955 all charges against him had been dismissed. He was lecturer in history at Johns Hopkins until 1963. From 1963-70 he was professor of Chinese studies at Leeds Univ., England. Among his other books are America and Asia (1943), The Situation in Asia (1949), Pivot of Asia (1950), Ordeal by Slander (1950), Studies in Asian Frontier History (1962), and Silks, Spices and Empire (ed., with Eleanor Lattimore, 1968).
Chamberlain, Owen, 1920-, American physicist, b. San Francisco, Calif., Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1948. He was on the faculty at the Univ. of California, Berkeley, from 1949 until his retirement in 1989, when he was named professor emeritus. Chamberlain received the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics with Emilio Segrè for producing and identifying the antiproton, a subatomic particle identical to the proton but with a negative electrical charge. Their 1955 finding set the stage for the discovery of many additional antiparticles, and antiprotons have since become an integral part of high-energy physics experiments.
Tudor, Owen, d. 1461, founder of the Tudor dynasty. He belonged to an ancient Welsh family. He was a squire at the court of Henry V, and, probably in 1429, he married Henry's widow, Catherine of Valois, by whom he had five children. Twice imprisoned by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, during Henry VI's minority, he finally escaped to Wales, although Henry later made provision for him in England. Owen, a faithful Lancastrian in the Wars of the Roses (see Roses, Wars of the), was beheaded by the Yorkists after their victory at Mortimer's Cross.
Lovejoy, Owen, 1811-64, American abolitionist, b. Albion, Maine, educated at Bowdoin College. He witnessed the killing of his brother Elijah P. Lovejoy, under whom he had studied for the ministry. Taking up Elijah's cause, he became the recognized leader of Illinois abolitionists, persuading them to accept the more conservative leadership of Lincoln and become a part of the Republican strength. For many years pastor of the Congregational Church at Princeton, Ill., he also served in Congress from 1857 until his death.

See study by E. Magdol (1967).

Meredith, Owen: see Bulwer-Lytton, Edward Robert.
Owen, John, 1616-83, English Puritan divine and theologian. In the civil war Owen supported the parliamentary cause. Oliver Cromwell took him as chaplain to Ireland and Scotland and had him appointed (1651) dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and vice chancellor (1652) of the university. He lost his posts after the Restoration. He was called to the presidency of Harvard, but he declined. Owen's writings include devotional literature and treatises against Arminianism and Socinianism. His works were edited by Thomas Russell (with a biography by William Orme, 28 vol., 1826) and by W. H. Goold (with a biography by Andrew Thomson, 24 vol., 1850-55).
Owen, Sir Richard, 1804-92, English zoologist and comparative anatomist. He studied medicine in Edinburgh and in 1827 joined the staff of the Hunterian museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, where he was first Hunterian professor of comparative anatomy and physiology (1836-56) and also conservator. As superintendent (1856-83) of the natural history department of the British Museum, he organized its removal to South Kensington. Owen's contributions to science were many and important. Although he opposed the theory of evolution, he introduced the important concepts of homology and analogy of animal structure, using his extensive findings in paleontology. His monumental work was the Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological Series of Comparative Anatomy (5 vol., 1833-40).

See biography by his grandson R. S. Owen (1894, repr. 1970).

Owen, Robert, 1771-1858, British social reformer and socialist, pioneer in the cooperative movement. The son of a saddler, he had little formal education but was a zealous reader. At the age of 10 he began working in the textile business and by 1794 had become a successful cotton manufacturer in Manchester.

In 1800, Owen moved to New Lanark, Scotland, where he had bought, with others, the mills of David Dale (whose daughter he married). There he reconstructed the community into a model industrial town with good housing and sanitation, nonprofit stores, schools, and excellent working conditions. Mill profits increased. The New Lanark experiment became famous in England and abroad, and Owen's ideas spread. He instigated the reform that resulted in the passage of the Factory Act of 1819—a watered down version of his proposals, but still a landmark in social reform. He also proposed the formation of self-sufficient cooperative agricultural-industrial communities. One such community, called New Harmony, was established (1825) in Indiana but failed after numerous disagreements among its members.

Professing a disbelief in religion (1817) and calling for the transformation of society rather than its reform (1820), Owen gradually lost much of his former upper-class support but was embraced by the working classes. After his return (1829) from the United States he became involved in the trade union movement and advocated the merging of unions with cooperative societies. Soon, however, the government took repressive action, and many workers responded by proclaiming the need for class struggle. Believing in the peaceful reordering of society, Owen ended his association with trade unionism and spent the last 25 years of his life writing and lecturing on his beliefs on education, marriage, and religion. Throughout his life Owen based his social programs on the idea that individual character is molded by environment and can be improved in a society based upon cooperation. Chief among his extensive writings are New View of Society; or, Essays on the Formation of Character (3 vol., 1813-14), Report to the County of Lanark (1821), and his autobiography (1857-58, repr. 1970).

See biographies by F. Podmore (1907, repr. 1971), G. D. H. Cole (3d ed. 1966), R. H. Harvey (1949), and M. I. Cole (1953, repr. 1969); studies by A. Morton (1962); J. Butts, ed. (1971), and R. G. Garnett (1973).

Owen, Robert Dale, 1801-77, American social reformer, b. Scotland; son of Robert Owen. He studied at his father's New Lanark school and in Switzerland. In 1825 he went to New Harmony, Ind. There he met Frances Wright, with whom he established (1829) in New York City the Free Enquirer, a paper opposing organized religion and urging wide social changes. In this and in his Moral Physiology (1830) he publicly advocated birth control for the first time in the United States.

Owen later became active in Indiana and U.S. politics. As a member of Congress (1843-47) he was instrumental in the founding of the Smithsonian Institution. When the Indiana constitution was revised in 1850, Owen secured an extension of property rights for married women and state provision for public schools. He served (1853-58) as U.S. minister to Naples, where he became a spiritualist. After his return to the United States he strongly advocated the emancipation of slaves and helped investigate the condition of the freedmen. His writings include An Outline of the System of Education at New Lanark (1824), Hints on Public Architecture (1849), The Wrong of Slavery (1864), The Debatable Land between This World and the Next (1872), a novel, a play, and numerous pamphlets.

See the autobiography of his early years, Threading My Way (1874); biographies by R. W. Leopold (1940, repr. 1969) and E. Pancoast and A. E. Lincoln (1940).

Owen, Wilfred, 1893-1918, English poet, b. Oswestry, Shropshire. He served as a company commander in the Artist's Rifles during World War I and was killed in France on Nov. 4, 1918, one week before the armistice. Owen's poetic theme, the horror and pity of war, is set forth in strong verse that transfigured traditional meters and diction. Nine of these poems are the basis of the text of Benjamin Britten's War Requiem (1962). Although Owen had worked on poems while living in France between 1913 and 1918, he never published. While on sick leave from the front in a Scottish hospital, he met the poet Siegfried Sassoon, who encouraged him to publish in magazines. He did, but these efforts were cut short by his return to the front. Two years after his death Sassoon arranged for the publication of 24 poems (1920).

See his collected poems (1931, 1963, and 1973); collected letters, ed. by his brother, Harold, and J. Bell (1967); biography by A. Orrmont (1972); study by G. M. White (1969).

Wister

(born July 14, 1860, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died July 21, 1938, North Kingstown, R.I.) U.S. novelist. A well-to-do Easterner who graduated from Harvard, he spent his summers in the West from 1885. After practicing law for two years, he devoted himself to a literary career. His novel The Virginian (1902), the story of a cattle-ranch foreman who depends for his life on a harsh code of ethics, was a great popular success and helped establish the cowboy as an American folk hero and stock fictional character; the novel became the basis of a play, numerous films, and even a television series. His other major work was Roosevelt: The Story of a Friendship, 1880–1919 (1930), detailing his long acquaintance with his Harvard classmate Theodore Roosevelt.

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(born March 18, 1893, Oswetry, Shropshire, Eng.—died Nov. 4, 1918, France) British poet. Owen was already writing verse before he enlisted in the army in 1915, but the experience of trench warfare brought him to rapid maturity; the poignant poems he wrote after January 1917 are full of anger at the cruelty and waste of war and pity for its victims. A week before the armistice, he died in action at age 25. His single volume of poems, published posthumously, is noted for its experiments in assonance. Benjamin Britten's celebrated War Requiem (1962) is a setting of Owen's poems.

Learn more about Owen, Wilfred with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 14, 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales—died Nov. 17, 1858, Newtown) Welsh manufacturer and philanthropist. At his New Lanark cotton mills (Lanarkshire, Scot.), in partnership with Jeremy Bentham, he set up innovative social and industrial welfare programs, including improved housing and schools for young children. In A New View of Society (1813) he contended that character is wholly formed by one's environment. By 1817 his work had evolved into ideas presaging socialism and the cooperative movement, ideas he would spend much of his life preaching. He sponsored several experimental utopian communities of “Owenites” in Britain and the U.S., including one at New Harmony, Ind. (1825–28)—where Owen lost some 80percnt of his fortune—all of which proved short-lived. He strongly supported early labour unions, but opposition and repression swiftly dissolved them, and it was two generations before socialism again influenced unionism. He was the father of Robert Dale Owen.

Learn more about Owen, Robert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 9, 1801, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 24, 1877, Lake George, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. social reformer. In 1825 he emigrated with his father, Robert Owen, to establish a community at New Harmony, Ind. He edited the local newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with Fanny Wright. The two eventually settled in New York City, where Owen edited the Free Enquirer, and both were active in the Workingmen's Party. Owen returned to New Harmony in 1832. After serving in the Indiana legislature, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–47), where he introduced a bill establishing the Smithsonian Institution. He later served as U.S. minister to Italy (1855–58). A strong advocate of emancipation, he urged an end to slavery in an 1861 letter to Abraham Lincoln that was said to have influenced the president greatly.

Learn more about Owen, Robert Dale with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 18, 1893, Oswetry, Shropshire, Eng.—died Nov. 4, 1918, France) British poet. Owen was already writing verse before he enlisted in the army in 1915, but the experience of trench warfare brought him to rapid maturity; the poignant poems he wrote after January 1917 are full of anger at the cruelty and waste of war and pity for its victims. A week before the armistice, he died in action at age 25. His single volume of poems, published posthumously, is noted for its experiments in assonance. Benjamin Britten's celebrated War Requiem (1962) is a setting of Owen's poems.

Learn more about Owen, Wilfred with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 9, 1801, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 24, 1877, Lake George, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. social reformer. In 1825 he emigrated with his father, Robert Owen, to establish a community at New Harmony, Ind. He edited the local newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with Fanny Wright. The two eventually settled in New York City, where Owen edited the Free Enquirer, and both were active in the Workingmen's Party. Owen returned to New Harmony in 1832. After serving in the Indiana legislature, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–47), where he introduced a bill establishing the Smithsonian Institution. He later served as U.S. minister to Italy (1855–58). A strong advocate of emancipation, he urged an end to slavery in an 1861 letter to Abraham Lincoln that was said to have influenced the president greatly.

Learn more about Owen, Robert Dale with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 14, 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales—died Nov. 17, 1858, Newtown) Welsh manufacturer and philanthropist. At his New Lanark cotton mills (Lanarkshire, Scot.), in partnership with Jeremy Bentham, he set up innovative social and industrial welfare programs, including improved housing and schools for young children. In A New View of Society (1813) he contended that character is wholly formed by one's environment. By 1817 his work had evolved into ideas presaging socialism and the cooperative movement, ideas he would spend much of his life preaching. He sponsored several experimental utopian communities of “Owenites” in Britain and the U.S., including one at New Harmony, Ind. (1825–28)—where Owen lost some 80percnt of his fortune—all of which proved short-lived. He strongly supported early labour unions, but opposition and repression swiftly dissolved them, and it was two generations before socialism again influenced unionism. He was the father of Robert Dale Owen.

Learn more about Owen, Robert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Wister

(born July 14, 1860, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died July 21, 1938, North Kingstown, R.I.) U.S. novelist. A well-to-do Easterner who graduated from Harvard, he spent his summers in the West from 1885. After practicing law for two years, he devoted himself to a literary career. His novel The Virginian (1902), the story of a cattle-ranch foreman who depends for his life on a harsh code of ethics, was a great popular success and helped establish the cowboy as an American folk hero and stock fictional character; the novel became the basis of a play, numerous films, and even a television series. His other major work was Roosevelt: The Story of a Friendship, 1880–1919 (1930), detailing his long acquaintance with his Harvard classmate Theodore Roosevelt.

Learn more about Wister, Owen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Welsh Owain Glyndwr

(born circa 1354—died 1416) Self-proclaimed prince of Wales who led an unsuccessful rebellion against England. Educated in England, he returned to Wales and touched off an uprising against Henry IV (under whom he had previously fought) in northern Wales in 1400. He was soon in control of most of Wales and had set up a Welsh Parliament. In 1403 his alliance with English nobles was crushed at Shrewsbury, and a later French alliance also failed; his strongholds at Aberystwyth and Harlech fell to the future Henry V in 1408–09. Glendower nonetheless remained active as a guerrilla warrior as late as 1412. His rebellions were the last major Welsh attempts to throw off English rule.

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(born Feb. 28, 1929, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Canadian-born U.S architect. He studied at the University of Southern California and Harvard University. In his early buildings, his use of inexpensive materials (chain-link fencing, plywood, corrugated steel) gave many of his projects an unfinished, whimsical air. His structures are often characterized by unconventional or distorted shapes that have a sculptural, fragmented, or collagelike quality. In designing public buildings, he tends to cluster small units within a larger space rather than creating monolithic structures, thus emphasizing human scale. Of particular note is his Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (1991–97) in Spain, a shimmering pile of sharply twisting, curving shapes surfaced in titanium. Gehry won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1989.

Learn more about Gehry, Frank O(wen) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Owen is a city in Clark County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 936 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Owen is located at (44.948330, -90.564740).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.8 km²), of which, 1.8 square miles (4.7 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (1.61%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 936 people, 412 households, and 255 families residing in the city. The population density was 510.9 people per square mile (197.5/km²). There were 455 housing units at an average density of 248.4/sq mi (96.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.61% White, 0.64% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.11% Asian, and 0.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population.

There were 412 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 23.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,368, and the median income for a family was $37,955. Males had a median income of $27,431 versus $20,547 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,981. About 9.4% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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