Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours. Normal hours may be determined in several ways:
Most nations have overtime laws designed to dissuade or prevent employers from forcing their employees to work excessively long hours. These laws may take into account other considerations than the humanitarian, such as increasing the overall level of employment in the economy. One common approach to regulating overtime is to require employers to pay workers at a higher hourly rate for overtime work. Companies may choose to pay workers higher overtime pay even if not obliged to do so by law, particularly if they believe that they face a backward bending supply curve of labour.
Overtime pay rates can cause workers to work longer hours than they would at a flat hourly rate. Overtime laws, attitudes toward overtime and hours of work vary greatly from country to country and between different economic sectors.
Classes of workers who are exempt from the regulation include certain types of administrative, professional, and executive employees. To qualify as an administrative, professional, or executive employee and therefore not be entitled to overtime, three tests must be passed based on salary basis, duties, and salary level. The tests vary between administrative, professional, and executive employees based on their different duties and salary levels. There are many other classes of workers who may be exempt including outside salespeople, certain agricultural employees, certain live-in employees, and certain transportation employees. Employees cannot waive their FLSA protections and cannot abridge them by contract.
An employer may not retaliate against an employee for filing a complaint or instituting a proceeding based on the FLSA. An employer that does retaliate would be liable under the Fair Labor Standards Act Section 216(b) for equitable relief including reinstatement, promotion, payment of lost wages, and payment of liquidated damages. Acts of retaliation include terminating employment, disrupting the workplace, threats, acts of physical violence, and constructive discharge.
Out of approximately 120 million American workers, nearly 50 million are exempt from overtime laws (U.S Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, 1998). In 2004, the United States was 7th out of 24 OECD countries in terms of annual working hours per worker. (See Working time for a complete listing.)
On August 23 2004, President George W. Bush and the Department of Labor proposed changes to regulations governing implementation of the law. According to one study, the changes would have had significant impact on the number of workers covered by overtime laws and have exempted several million additional workers . The Bush administration maintained that the practical impact on working Americans would be minimal and that the changes would help clarify an outdated regulation. In particular, the new rules would have allowed more companies to offer flextime to their workers in lieu of overtime. In September 2004, both chambers of Congress voted to block the Labor Department from putting these regulatory changes into effect.
In the United States, such arrangements are currently illegal for private sector workers under overtime laws, but the practice is legal in the public sector.
For example, under current overtime laws in the U.S., non-exempt workers must receive one and one half times their normal hourly wage for every hour worked beyond 40 hours in a work week. So, if a worker clocks 48 hours in one week, then he would receive pay equivalent to 52 hours of work (40 hours + 8 hours at 1.5 times the normal hourly wage). Comp time would permit the worker in this example to forego the 12 hours of overtime pay and instead take 12 paid hours off at some future date.
In Australia, Public sector workers are paid 1.5 times their hourly wage for the first 2 hours of overtime with any additional overtime paid at double time. A minimum of 4 hours of overtime is paid. For example, an on call microbiology scientist called in for an urgent microscopy which will take 20 minutes will be paid for 4 hours of overtime.
In Japan this is a widespread, almost standard work place practice and can in extreme cases lead to the Japanese Karōshi phenomenon of death-by-overwork (usually a stroke, sometimes suicide). A firm might pay 20 hours of overtime per month but to meet their superiors' deadlines and expectations, employees will have to put in many more hours which do not show up officially. The practice is called "sabisu zangyo", "sabisu" meaning "service" and "zangyo" meaning "overtime", essentially "free overtime".
In California, based on California Labor Code 1171, only an employment relationship is required for overtime rules to apply. Under the California Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders, an "employer" is "any person ... who directly or indirectly, or through an agent or any other person, employs or exercises control over wages, hours, or working conditions of any person." Under the California Labor Code, an " employee" is "[any] person, including aliens and minors, rendering actual service in any business for an employer, whether gratuitously or for wages or pay, whether the wages or pay are measured by the standard of time, piece, task, commission, or other method of calculation, and whether the service is rendered on a commission, concessionaire, or other basis." Independent contractors are not employees covered by overtime laws, so it is important to determine if a worker is an independent contractor or an employee.
Directives 93/104/EC (1993), 2000/34/EC (2000), which limited working hours, were consolidated into 2003/88/EC (2003). Employers and employees could agree to opt out, but this exception is to be tightened up, after the EC reported evidence that the opt-out was being abused in the UK, in a new proposal for a directive expected to be adopted in early 2006, and adopted into the law of member states within 2 years.
The Directives require:
The Directives apply to:
The conditions attached to the worker's individual consent are tightened by the proposed new Directive: member states may allow workers to opt out from the limitation of hours worked so long as this is expressly allowed under a collective agreement (e.g., with a trades union), and if the individual worker consents. The individual's consent is subject to conditions:
When overtime lasts a lifetime [Corrected 03/ 18/ 09] ; As the Buffalo Fire Department shrinks, the overtime increases, giving some near-retirement firefighters the chance to pump up their paychecks and their pensions. Series: Firefighter Pensions
Mar 15, 2009; When it comes to racking up overtime, Buffalo Fire Capt. Raymond J. Sullivan beat the odds. So did Fire Lt. Richard T....