Definitions

overdrew

List of English irregular verbs

This is a list of irregular verbs in the English language. The citation form (the infinitive) comes first (with a link to the Wiktionary article on the verb), together with the present tense forms when they are different, then the preterite or simple past, and finally the past participle. The right hand column notes whether they are weak or strong and whether they belong to a subclass, and links to discussions elsewhere. Typical irregularities in weak verbs are the assimilation of dentals (bendedbent) and vowel reduction (*keepedkept).

It should be noted that many of these verbs are irregular in British or American English only; in many cases, such as spell (spelt vs. spelled), learn (learnt vs. learned), and spill (spilt vs. spilled), American English uses the regular form, while British English tends to favor the irregular. In other cases, the opposite is true (dived and sneaked in Britain, also dove and snuck in the U.S.); Australian English tends to follow British practice, while Canadian English often sides with American usage. See further at American and British English differences. In this table, the preferred or more common usage is generally listed first, though for some words usage is nearly equal for both choices.

verb forms verb class and notes
abide abided/abode abided/*abidden Strong, class 1
arise arose arisen Strong, class 1
awake awoke awoken Strong, class 6
be was been Suppletive. See: Indo-European copula.
bear bore born/borne Strong, class 4
beat beat beaten/beat Strong, class 7
become became become Strong, class 4
befall befell befallen Strong, class 7
beget begot/begat begotten Strong, class 5
begin began begun Strong, class 3
behold beheld beheld Strong, class 7
bend bent/bended bent/bended Weak with assimilation of dentals
bereave bereaved/bereft bereaved/bereft Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
beseech besought/beseeched besought/beseeched Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
beset beset beset Weak with assimilation of dentals
bet bet/betted bet/betted Weak with assimilation of dentals
bid (in cards, auctions, etc.) bid bid Weak with assimilation of dentals
bid (meaning to request or say) bade/bid/bidded bidden/bid/bidded Strong, class 5
bide bided/bode bided/bidden Strong, class 1
bind bound bound Strong, class 3
bite bit bitten Strong, class 1
bleed bled bled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
blow blew blown Strong, class 7
break broke broken Strong, class 4
breed bred bred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
bring brought brought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
broadcast broadcast broadcast Weak with assimilation of dentals
browbeat browbeat browbeaten Strong, class 7
build built built Weak with assimilation of dentals
burn burned/burnt burnt/burned Weak
burst burst/bursted/ burst/bursted Strong, class 3
buy bought bought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
can could (none) Preterite-present
cast cast cast Weak with assimilation of dentals
catch caught caught Weak - a French loanword conjugated perhaps by analogy with teach-taught
choose chose chosen Strong, class 2
cleave(split apart) clove cloven/cleft Strong, class 2
*clepe clept/cleped clept/cleped Weak with assimilation of dentals
cleave(cling to) cleft/cleaved cleft/cleaved Weak with vowel reduction
cling clang/clung clung Strong, class 3
clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
come came come Strong, class 4
cost cost cost Weak with assimilation of dentals
creep crept crept Strong, class 2
cut cut cut Weak with assimilation of dentals
deal dealt dealt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
dig dug dug  
dive dived/dove dived Strong, class 2
do did done Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon"
drag drug/dragged drug/dragged Strong, class 6
draw drew drawn Strong, class 6
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt Weak with vowel reduction assimilation of dentals
drink drank/drunk drank/drunk/drunken Strong, class 3
drive drove driven Strong, class 1
dwell dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled Weak with assimilation of dentals
eat ate eaten Strong, class 5
fall fell fallen Strong, class 7
feed fed fed Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
feel felt felt Weak with assimilation of dentals
fight fought fought Strong, class 3
find found found Strong, class 3
fit fit/fitted fit/fitted Weak with assimilation of dentals
flee fled fled Strong, class 2
fling flung flung Strong, class 3
fly flew flown Strong, class 2
forbid forbad/forbade/forbid forbid/forbidden Strong, class 5
forecast forecast forecast Weak with assimilation of dentals
forego forewent foregone Suppletive. See: go (verb).
forgo forwent forgone Suppletive. See: go (verb).
foresee foresaw foreseen Strong, class 5
foretell foretold foretold Weak with Rückumlaut
forget forgot forgotten Strong, class 5
forgive forgave forgiven Strong, class 5
forsake forsook forsaken Strong, class 6
forswear forswore forsworn Strong, class 6
freeze froze frozen Strong, class 2
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid Weak
get got gotten/got Strong, class 5
gird girt/girded girt/girded Weak with assimilation of dentals
give gave given Strong, class 5
go went gone Suppletive. See: go (verb).
grave grove/graved graven/graved Strong, class 6
grind ground/grinded ground Strong, class 3
grow grew grown Strong, class 7
hang hung/hanged hung/hanged Strong, class 7 weak past tense and present influenced by OE causative "hangian"
have had had Weak pret./p.p. spring from O.E. haefd
hear heard heard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
hew hew/hewed hewn/hewed Strong, class 7
hide hid hid/hidden Weak vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
hit hit hit Weak with assimilation of dentals
hold held held Strong, class 7
hurt hurt hurt Weak with assimilation of dentals
input input input Weak with assimilation of dentals
inset inset inset Weak with assimilation of dentals
interbreed interbred interbred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
interweave interwove interwoven Strong, class 7
keep kept kept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
knit knit/knitted knit/knitted Weak with assimilation of dentals
know knew known Strong, class 7
*lade laded laden/laded Strong, class 6
lay laid laid Weak; irregular only in spelling
lead led led Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt Strong, class 7
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt Weak with assimilation of dentals
leave left left Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
lose lost lost Strong, class 2
lend lent lent Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
let (allow) let let Strong, class 7
lie (but not talking untruthfully) lay lain Strong, class 5
light lit/lighted lit/lighted Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
make made made Weak contraction of "maked"
may might Preterite-present
mean meant meant Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
meet met met Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
melt melted/*molt melted/*molten Strong, class 3
mishear misheard misheard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
mislay mislaid mislaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
mislead misled misled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
misread misread misread Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
misshape misshaped misshaped/misshapen Strong, class 6
misspell misspelled/misspelt misspelled/misspelt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
mistake mistook mistaken Strong, class 6
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood Strong, class 6
mow mowed mowed/mown Strong, class 7
*naysay naysaid naysaid Weak
outbid outbid outbid Weak with assimilation of dentals
outdo outdid outdone  
outgrow outgrew outgrown Strong, class 7
outrun outran outrun Strong, class 3
outsell outsold outsold Weak with Rückumlaut
overcast overcast overcast Weak with assimilation of dentals
overcome overcame overcome Strong, class 4
overdo overdid overdone Reduplication with past participle springing from Old English "gedon"
overdraw overdrew overdrawn Strong, class 6
overeat overate overeaten Strong, class 5
overhang overhung/overhanged overhung/overhanged Preterite-present
overhear overheard overheard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
overlay overlaid overlaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
overlie overlay overlain Strong, class 5
overpay overpaid overpaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
override overrode overridden Strong, class 1
overrun overran overrun Strong, class 3
oversee oversaw overseen Strong, class 5
oversell oversold oversold Weak with Rückumlaut
overset overset overset Weak
overshoot overshot overshot Strong, class 2
oversleep overslept overslept Strong, class 7
overtake overtook overtaken Strong, class 6
overthrow overthrew overthrown Strong, class 7
partake partook partaken Strong, class 6
pay paid paid Weak; irregular only in spelling
plead pleaded/pled pleaded/pled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
proofread proofread proofread Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
prove proved proved/proven borrowed French verb
put put put Weak with assimilation of dentals
*queath or quethe quoth quoth/quethen Strong, class 5
quit quit quit Weak with assimilation of dentals
read read read Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
*reave reft reft Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
recast recast recast Weak with assimilation of dentals
rend rent rent Weak with assimilation of dentals
redo redid redone Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon"
re-lay re-laid re-laid Weak; irregular only in spelling
remake remade remade Weak wih assimilation of dentals
repay repaid repaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
rerun reran rerun Strong, class 3
resell resold resold Weak with Rückumlaut
reset reset reset Weak with assimilation of dentals
rethink rethought rethought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
rewind rewound rewound Strong, class 3
rewrite rewrote rewritten Strong, class 1
rid rid/ridded rid/ridden/ridded  
ride rode ridden Strong, class 1
ring rang rung Strong, class 3
rise rose risen Strong, class 1
rive rived/rove rived/riven Strong, class 1
run ran run Strong, class 3
saw sawed sawed/sawn  
*sake sook saken Strong, class 6
say said said Weak
see saw seen Strong, class 5
seek sought sought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
sell sold sold Weak with Rückumlaut
send sent sent Weak with assimilation of dentals
set set set Weak
sew sewed sewed/sewn  
shake shook shaken Strong, class 6
shall should (none) Preterite-present; defective; see also Shall and will
shave shove/shaved shaven/shaved Strong, class 6
shear shore/sheared shorn/sheared Strong, class 4
shed shed/shedded shed/shedded Strong, class 7
shine shined/shone shined/shone Strong, class 1
shit shit/shat/shitted shit/shat/shitted Strong, class 1;
shite shit/shat shit/shat/shitten Strong, class 1
shoe shoed/shod shoed/shod/shodden Weak with vowel reduction
shoot shot shot Strong, class 2
show showed/shew shown/showed Weak, with participle shown perhaps by analogy with sow, sown
shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk/shrunken Strong, class 3
*''shrive shrove shriven Strong, class 1
shut shut shut Weak
sing sang sung Strong, class 3
sink sank/sunk sunk/sunken Strong, class 3
sit sat sat Strong, class 5
slay slew/slayed slain/slayed Strong, class 6
sleep slept slept Strong, class 7
slide slid slid/slidden Strong, class 1
sling slang/slung slung Strong, class 3
slink slunk slunk Strong, class 3
slit slit slit Strong, class 1
smell smelled/smelt smelled/smelt Weak with assimilation of dentals
smite smote/smit smitten Strong, class 1
sneak sneaked/snuck sneaked/snuck Weak with naturally developing strong form
sow sowed/sew sowed/sown Strong, class 7
speak spoke spoken Strong, class 5
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
spell spelled/spelt spelled/spelt Weak with assimilation of dentals
spend spent spent Weak with assimilation of dentals
spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
spin span/spun spun strong, class 3
spit spit/spat spit  
split split split Weak with assimilatin of dentals
spoil spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt Weak with assimilation of dentals
spread spread spread Weak with assimilation of dentals
spring sprang/sprung sprung Strong, class 3
stand stood stood Strong, class 6
steal stole stolen Strong, class 4
stick stuck stuck  
sting stang/stung stung Strong, class 3
stink stank/stunk stunk Strong, class 3
strew strew/strewed strewn/strewed  
stride strode/strided stridden/strided Strong, class 1
strike struck stricken/struck Strong, class 1
string strang/strung strung Weak with naturally developing strong form
strive strove/strived striven/strived Strong, class 1
swear swore sworn Strong, class 6
sweep swept swept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals
swell swelled/swoll swelled/swollen Strong, class 3
*swelt swolt/swelted swolten/swelted Strong, class 3
swim swam swam/swum Strong, class 3
swing swang/swung swung Strong, class 3
take took taken Strong, class 6
teach taught taught Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
tear tore torn Strong, class 4
tell told told Weak with Rückumlaut
think thought thought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law
thrive thrived/throve thrived/thriven Strong, class 1
throw threw thrown Strong, class 7
thrust thrust/thrusted thrust/thrusted  
tread trod trodden/trod Strong, class 5
unbind unbound unbound Strong, class 3
undergo underwent undergone  
underlie underlay underlain Strong, class 5
understand understood understood Strong, class 6
undertake undertook undertaken Strong, class 6
underwrite underwrote underwritten Strong, class 1
undo undid undone Reduplication with p.p. springing from OE "gedon"
unwind unwound unwound Strong, class 3
uphold upheld upheld Strong, class 7
upset upset/upsetted upset/upsetted Weak with assimilation of dentals
wake woke woken Strong, class 6
wax waxed waxed/waxen Strong, class 7
waylay waylaid waylaid Weak; irregular only in spelling
wear wore worn Weak with strong form based on "bear"
weave weaved/wove/*weft woven/*weft Strong, class 7
wed wed/wedded wed/wedded Weak with assimilation of dentals
weep wept wept Strong, class 7
wend wended/went wended/went weak with assimilation of dentals
wet wet/wetted wet/wetted Weak with assimilation of dentals
will would/willed willed Irregular; see also Shall and will
win won won Strong, class 3
wind wound wound Strong, class 3
*wit wist wist Preterite-present verb
withdraw withdrew withdrawn Strong, class 6
withhold withheld withheld Strong, class 7
withstand withstood withstood Strong, class 6
work worked/wrought worked/wrought Weak with Rückumlaut and metathesis of r and o
*worth worth worth/worthen Strong, class 3
wring wrang/wrung wrung Strong, class 3
write wrote/*writ written Strong, class 1
writhe writhed/*wrothe writhed/*writhen Strong, class 1

Present tense irregular verbs

(†) Though the list of verbs irregular in the preterite or perfect tenses is long, the list of irregular present tense verbs is very short. Excepting verbs like "shall" and "can" that do not inflect at all in the present tense, there are only four:

  • have: I have, you have, he has, we have, they have.
  • say (and compounds such as "gainsay" and "naysay"): I say, you say, he says, we say, they say where "says" is pronounced sɛz or sɛs in contrast to seɪ, the pronunciation of the infinitive and the other present tense forms.
  • do (and compounds such as "undo" and "redo"): I do, you do, he does, we do, they do where "does" is pronounced dəz in contrast to du, the pronunciation of the infinitive and the other present tense forms.
  • be: I am, you are, he is, we are, they are; in addition, the preterite forms are irregular: I was, you were, he was, we were, they were.

Additional note

These verbs from the list above are spelled the same in the simple past as in the present tense (excluding compounds such as set, beset, inset, upset etc.): beat, bet, burst, cast, cost, cut, hit, hurt, let, put, quit, read, rid, set, shed, shut, slit, split, spread. (Note that of all the preceding, only "read" is pronounced differently in the past tense from the present tense.)

It should also be noted that there are some differences between U.S. and British usage, for instance the form "snuck" is not used in British English.

See also: Wiktionary Appendix:Irregular Verbs or the Category:English_irregular_verbs.

External links

Search another word or see overdrewon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature