Medical specialty dealing with the ear, nose, and throat (see larynx, pharynx). The connection of these structures became known in the late 19th century. Otolaryngologists use an otoscope to examine the eardrum and a laryngoscope (developed in 1855) to inspect the larynx. They also test hearing and prescribe hearing aids. The operating microscope (developed in 1921) and flexible endoscopy now permit them to operate on delicate internal structures.
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Otolaryngologists are medical doctors (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) or osteopathic doctors (DO) who complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each.
Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowship training which can range from as little as 2 weekend courses (Allergy) or as long as 1-2 years in duration (pediatric otolaryngology)
|Head and Neck||Facial plastics*||Otology||Neuro-otology*||Rhinology/Sinus||Laryngology||Pediatrics*||Sleep*|
|Surgical oncology||Facial cosmetics||Ear||Middle and inner ear||Sinusitis||Voice therapy||VeloPalatine-Insufficiency|
|Reconstruction||Maxillofacial||Hearing||Temporal bone||Allergy||Phono-surgery||Cleft Lip and Palate|
|Endocrine surgery||Trauma||Skull base||Anterior skull base||Airway|
|Dizziness||Apnea and snoring||Vascular Malformations|