otolaryngology

otolaryngology

[oh-toh-lar-ing-gol-uh-jee]
or otorhinolaryngology

Medical specialty dealing with the ear, nose, and throat (see larynx, pharynx). The connection of these structures became known in the late 19th century. Otolaryngologists use an otoscope to examine the eardrum and a laryngoscope (developed in 1855) to inspect the larynx. They also test hearing and prescribe hearing aids. The operating microscope (developed in 1921) and flexible endoscopy now permit them to operate on delicate internal structures.

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Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL). A commonly used term for this specialty is ENT (ear, nose and throat). The term comes from the Greek ωτολαρυγγολογία (oto = genitive for ear, laryngo = genitive for larynx/throat, logy = study), and it literally means the study of ear and neck. The full term ωτορρινολαρυγγολογία (otorhinolaryngology), also includes rhino, which is the genitive of nose.

Explanation

Otolaryngologists are medical doctors (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) or osteopathic doctors (DO) who complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each.

Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowship training which can range from as little as 2 weekend courses (Allergy) or as long as 1-2 years in duration (pediatric otolaryngology)

Subspecialties

(*Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)
Head and Neck Facial plastics* Otology Neuro-otology* Rhinology/Sinus Laryngology Pediatrics* Sleep*
Surgical oncology Facial cosmetics Ear Middle and inner ear Sinusitis Voice therapy VeloPalatine-Insufficiency
Reconstruction Maxillofacial Hearing Temporal bone Allergy Phono-surgery Cleft Lip and Palate
Endocrine surgery Trauma Skull base Anterior skull base Airway
Dizziness Apnea and snoring Vascular Malformations
Cochlear Implant/BAHA

Topics in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery

Contributors please visit the new Current Otorhinolaryngology WikiBook project before posting your academic topics here. High-level professional-quality material needed!

Otology/neuro-otology

Rhinology

Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.

Pediatrics

Laryngology

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery

References

External links

Societies

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