Definitions

Oskar

Oskar

[os-ker]
Lafontaine, Oskar, 1943-, German politician. He rose through the Social Democrat Party (SPD) and electoral ranks in the Saar, becoming SPD regional chairman in 1977 and premier of the Saar in 1985. A leader of his party's "peace faction" in the early 1980s, he denounced Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's nuclear policy, calling for withdrawal from NATO. He was seen as the party's "conceptual pioneer," who would redefine its policies on unemployment and the environment. He opposed the German reunification agreement negotiated by Chancellor Helmut Kohl, but lost support within the SPD; he was defeated in the Dec., 1990, election, having survived an assassination attempt in April. In 1995 he became national chairman of the SPD. Returned to parliament, he became (1998) finance minister in the government of Gerhard Schröder, but clashes over policy caused him to resign the ministry, his SPD leadership, and his parliamentary seat in Mar., 1999. In 2005 he joined with left-wing SPD dissidents, former Communists, and others in forming the socialist Left party.
Schindler, Oskar, 1908-74, German industrialist who saved more than a thousand Jews during Holocaust. A Catholic and a member of the National Socialist (Nazi) party, Schindler relocated (1939) to Kraków, in German-occupied Poland, and established an armament factory whose workers included Jewish laborers from Nazi camps. Resolving to save as many as Jews possible from the "final solution," he engratiated himself with Nazi officials and employed as many Jews as he could get, listing them as skilled industrial workers when they were not (some were children) and housing them in his own facility. In 1943, after the Kraków ghetto was destroyed, Schindler created a safe sub-camp at his factory.

In 1944, as more Jews were consigned to death camps, Schindler drew up a list of some 1,100, as many as he could afford to obtain, and had them sent to his labor camp in Czechoslovakia, supposedly to produce essential munitions. After Russians liberated the camp (1945), its inmates scattered throughout the world, many immigrating to Israel. Schindler, impoverished by his efforts, received aid from a Jewish welfare group, immigrated to Argentina, and later returned to West Germany. Honored by Israel, he was buried in Jerusalem. His story formed the basis for Thomas Keneally's Schindler's Ark (1982, American title Schindler's List) and the subsequent Steven Spielberg film (1993).

See T. Keneally, Searching for Schindler (2008); biography by D. M. Crowe (2004); T. Fensch, ed., Oskar Schindler and His List (1995); P. Mietek, The Road to Rescue (2008).

Schlemmer, Oskar, 1888-1943, German painter and stage designer. Known for his mechanical, geometricized forms, Schlemmer taught painting, sculpture, and stage design at the Bauhaus (1920-29). He created the Triadic Ballet to Hindemith's music. In sculpture he experimented with plastic relief in a style related to constructivism.
Kokoschka, Oskar, 1886-1980, Austrian expressionist painter and writer. After teaching at the art academy in Dresden (1920-24), Kokoschka traveled extensively in Europe and N Africa. In 1937 his works were removed from German galleries by the Nazis, who considered his work degenerate. He moved to London in 1938 and after World War II lived in Switzerland and established an international summer school in Salzburg.

Kokoschka was influenced by the elegant work of Klimt, but soon developed his own distinctive expressionist style (see expressionism). His early portraits (c.1909-14) emphasize psychological insight and tension (e.g., the portrait of Hans Tietze and his wife, 1909; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). The same restless, energetic draftsmanship is characteristic of his expressionist landscapes and his striking posters and lithographs. His landscapes include Jerusalem (Detroit Inst. of Arts) and View of Prague (Phillips Memorial Gall., Washington, D.C.).

See his volume of watercolors, drawings, and writings (1962); reproductions of his work, comp. by B. Bultmann (1961), L. Goldscheider (1963), E. G. Rathenau (1970), and J. Tomeš (1972); biography by E. Hoffmann (1947).

(born March 1, 1886, Pöchlarn, Austria—died Feb. 22, 1980, Villeneuve, Switz.) Austrian painter and writer. He studied and taught at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts but was dissatisfied because the school omitted study of the human figure, his primary artistic interest. His early paintings were rendered in delicate, agitated lines and relatively naturalistic colours. After circa 1912 he became a leading exponent of Expressionism; his portraits came to be painted with increasingly broader strokes of more varied colour and heavier outlines. While recovering from a wound received in World War I, he wrote, produced, and staged three plays; his Orpheus and Eurydice (1918) became an opera by Ernst Krenek (1926). The landscapes he produced during 10 years of teaching and travel mark the second peak of his career. Shortly before World War II he fled to London, where his paintings became increasingly political and antifascist. He continued his political art after moving to Switzerland in 1953.

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(born March 1, 1886, Pöchlarn, Austria—died Feb. 22, 1980, Villeneuve, Switz.) Austrian painter and writer. He studied and taught at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts but was dissatisfied because the school omitted study of the human figure, his primary artistic interest. His early paintings were rendered in delicate, agitated lines and relatively naturalistic colours. After circa 1912 he became a leading exponent of Expressionism; his portraits came to be painted with increasingly broader strokes of more varied colour and heavier outlines. While recovering from a wound received in World War I, he wrote, produced, and staged three plays; his Orpheus and Eurydice (1918) became an opera by Ernst Krenek (1926). The landscapes he produced during 10 years of teaching and travel mark the second peak of his career. Shortly before World War II he fled to London, where his paintings became increasingly political and antifascist. He continued his political art after moving to Switzerland in 1953.

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Oskar-Helene-Heim is an U-Bahn station in Berlin located in the Dahlem district on the .

The station opened on December 22, 1929. It was named after the neighbouring hospital, a foundation of Oskar and Helene Pintsch, descendants of manufacturer Julius Pintsch. Today Oskar-Helene-Heim is the closest U-Bahn station to the United States Consulate, which is located nearby on Clayallee.

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