Medical specialty concerned with the skeleton and its associated structures. Orthopedists treat fractures, strained muscles, torn ligaments and tendons, and other injuries and deal with acquired and congenital skeletal deformities and the effects of degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. Originally dependent on heavy braces and splints, orthopedics now uses bone grafts, hip and other joint replacements, prostheses (see prosthesis), special footwear, and braces to enhance mobility. Orthopedics uses the techniques of physical medicine and rehabilitation and occupational therapy in addition to those of traditional medicine and surgery.
Learn more about orthopedics with a free trial on Britannica.com.
It is largely replaced now by more modern techniques, but certain approaches are still used today:
Although the use of traction has decreased over the years, there is an increasing number of orthopedic practitioners that are using traction in conjunction with bracing (see Milwaukee brace). The section below provides some details on traction and its use.
Bryant's traction is mainly used in young children who have fractures of the femur or congenital abnormalities of the hip. Both the patient's limbs are suspended in the air vertically at a ninety degree angle from the hips and knees slightly flexed. Over a period of days, the legs hips are gradually moved outward from the body using a pulley system. The patient's body provides the countertraction.
The purpose of traction is to:
In most cases traction is only one part of the treatment plan of a patient needing such therapy. The physician’s order will contain:
The physician is typically responsible for initial application of traction and weights while the adjustment or removal (to perform ablution functions / physiotherapy) of skeletal traction weights will be based on the doctors charted plan.
In most cases cervical traction may be adjusted or temporarily removed, per physician order, by an orthopedic nurse who has documented competency to do so.
The alignment and moving of the patient will only be changed on physician's directive and the affected extremity will need to be maintained in proper alignment at all times with the ropes and traction straps - making sure the mentioned is unobstructed and weights hanging freely.
If it is necessary to move the patient while skeletal traction is in place, the patient should be moved in the bed with weights hanging freely.
In most cases traction will be applied for a number of weeks to months and Neurovascular checks will need to be performed by a nurse as ordered by the physician or as dictated per traction unit policy.
Traction is an appropriate treatment for a number of medical problems including spinal deformities such as scoliosis.
$2.35b bid to create No. 3 in orthopedics. (Business Developments).(Centerpulse AG acquired by Smith & Nephew to become Smith & Nephew Group)(Company Profile)
Apr 01, 2003; British medical device company Smith & Nephew plc (S&N; London), stirred up the orthopedics sector last month with its...