A process can become orphaned during remote invocation when the client process crashes after making a request of the server.
Orphans waste server resources and can potentially leave a server in trouble. However there are several solutions to the orphan process problem:
A process can also be orphaned running on the same machine as its parent process. In a Unix-like operating system any orphaned process will be immediately adopted by the special init system process. This operation is called re-parenting and occurs automatically. Even though technically the process has the "init" process as its parent, it is still called an orphan process since the process that originally created it no longer exists.