Ormonde

Ormonde

Ormonde, James Butler, 12th earl and 1st duke of, 1610-88, Irish statesman, most powerful royalist influence in Ireland during the English civil war. A ward of the crown after the death (1619) of his father, Viscount Thurles, he was brought up a Protestant and in 1629 he married the heiress of the earl of Desmond. In Ireland from 1633, Ormonde gained the favor of Thomas Wentworth (later 1st earl of Strafford). In 1640, he was placed in command of the army in Ireland as lieutenant general. As lieutenant general, he fought the Irish rebels in 1641 and, although greatly hampered by the Irish lords justices, defeated the rebels at Killsalghen and Kilrush. He was made a marquess in 1642, again defeated (1943) the rebels, and, under orders from Charles I, concluded the treaty of "cessation," placing most of Ireland in the hands of the Confederate Catholics. He then served (1644-47) as lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he skillfully maintained himself against both Catholic rebels and the Protestant adherents of the English parliament. In 1647, however, he made terms with Parliament in order to restore peace in Ireland and gave up his office. He joined (1648) the queen and Prince Charles in Paris, but in 1649 he returned to Ireland and proclaimed the prince as King Charles II. Leaving the island at the insistence of Charles, he commissioned (1650) the earl of Clanricarde as his deputy. Ormonde represented Charles in the negotiations preceding the Restoration, and after 1660 he was given numerous offices and titles, including privy councillor, lord high steward of England, earl of Brecknock (in the English peerage) and duke of Ormonde (Irish; also English in 1682). Again lord lieutenant of Ireland, he worked to promote Irish trade and to effect the complicated business of restoration of property. He was unpopular with the Restoration court, especially with the 2d duke of Buckingham, who apparently instigated (1669) an unsuccessful attempt on Ormonde's life. Ormonde was removed (1669) as lord lieutenant but was restored to office in 1677. Because of his mild anti-Catholic measures at the time of the Popish Plot (see Oates, Titus), he was attacked by the 1st earl of Shaftesbury. He was again removed from the lord lieutenancy in 1684 as a result of intrigue. Thereafter he emerged from retirement only to oppose James II's attempt to dispense with the anti-Catholic laws. He survived his son, the earl of Ossory, and was succeeded by his grandson. In an age of complex loyalties, Ormonde directed his considerable talents to the support of the Stuarts, except when opposition to Parliament seemed hopeless.

See biographies by T. Carte (6 vol., 1851) and Lady Burghclere (2 vol., 1912).

Ormonde, James Butler, 2d duke of, 1665-1745, Irish soldier. He was the son of Thomas Butler, earl of Ossory, and grandson of the Ist duke, whom he succeeded in 1688. A staunch Tory and popular military figure, he supported the cause of William of Orange (William III) and fought in the battle of the Boyne (1690). Early in the War of the Spanish Succession he commanded (1702) land forces in the fruitless expedition against Cádiz. Later, as lord lieutenant of Ireland (1703-6, 1710-13) and as the duke of Marlborough's successor (1711) in command of the forces, he appeared to be one of the most powerful men in the kingdom. He became involved, however, in the plot to prevent the accession of George I, and in 1715 he was impeached. Fleeing to France, he was attainted, took part in the risings of the Jacobites in 1715 and 1719, and spent the rest of his life in exile.
Ormonde, James Butler, 5th earl of, 1420-61, Irish nobleman. He was knighted in his youth by Henry VI of England and was created earl of Wiltshire in 1449. He succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde in 1453. A staunch Lancastrian, he was made deputy (1451) and then viceroy (1453) of Ireland and lord high treasurer of England (1455). In the Wars of the Roses, he fought at St. Albans, Wakefield, and Mortimer's Cross, and, after being captured at Towton, was executed by the Yorkists.
Ormonde, Thomas Butler, 10th earl of, 1532-1614, Irish nobleman. Brought up at the English court, he was the first of his family to embrace Protestantism. He succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde in 1546, and in 1554 he went to Ireland, where he tried to mediate between the Irish and their English rulers. He became involved in a bitter quarrel in Munster with Gerald Fitzgerald, 15th earl of Desmond, the representative of the traditional enemies of the Ormondes, as a result of which Desmond was imprisoned. Ormonde was at the court of Elizabeth I (1565-69) and returned to Ireland only because his presence there was essential to maintain order. When Desmond (who had been released in 1573) rose in rebellion in 1579, Ormonde was made military governor of Munster and led the fight against the Desmond faction until the rebellious earl was captured and slain (1583). In 1588, Ormonde helped to capture the survivors of the Spanish Armada on the coast of Ireland, and in 1597 he was made lieutenant general of Ireland and supported the English troops against Hugh O'Neill, 2d earl of Tyrone. In 1612 he became vice admiral of Ireland.

(born Oct. 19, 1610, London, Eng.—died July 21, 1688, Kingston Lacy, Dorset) Anglo-Irish statesman. Born into the prominent Butler family of Ireland, he succeeded to the earldom of Ormonde in 1632. In service to the English crown in Ireland from 1633, he fought against the Catholic rebellion from 1641. He concluded a peace with the Catholic confederacy in 1649, then rallied support for Charles II, but he was forced to flee when Oliver Cromwell landed at Dublin. He was Charles's adviser in exile (1650–60). After the Restoration he was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland (1662–69, 1677–84), where he encouraged Irish commerce and industry. He was created a duke in 1682.

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Ormonde is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is located in Region 9.

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