organic farming

or organic gardening

System of crop cultivation that uses biological methods of fertilization and pest control as substitutes for chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which are regarded by supporters of organic methods as harmful to health and the environment and unnecessary for successful cultivation. It was initiated as a conscious rejection of modern agri-chemical techniques in the 1930s by the British agronomist Sir Albert Howard. Miscellaneous organic materials, including animal manure, compost, grass turf, straw, and other crop residues, are applied to fields to improve both soil structure and moisture-holding capacity and to nourish soil life, which in turn nourishes plants. (Chemical fertilizers, by contrast, feed plants directly.) Biological pest control is achieved through preventive methods, including diversified farming, crop rotation, the planting of pest-deterrent species, and the use of integrated pest management techniques. Bioengineered strains are avoided. Since organic farming is time-consuming, organically grown produce tends to be expensive. Organic produce formerly accounted for a minuscule portion of total American farm output, but it has seen a huge proportional increase in sales in recent years.

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Organic may refer to:


Materials and substances:

See also Biological material (disambiguation)


  • Organic chemistry, chemistry involving organic compounds.
  • Organic compound, a compound that contains carbon (although some carbon-containing compounds are excluded).

Farming, certification and products:

  • Organic food, food that is produced according to certain standards and is certified organic
  • Organic agriculture, that which relies on ecosystem management rather than external agricultural inputs
  • Organic certification, accreditation process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products
  • Organic movement, organizations and individuals involved in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and organic farming
  • Organic baby products, those which can be certified organic for babies and toddlers


  • Organic computing, computing systems with properties of self-configuration, self-optimization, self-healing, and/or self-protection
  • Organic search, search results through unpaid search engine listings, rather than through paid advertisements
  • Organic semiconductor, an organic compound that exhibits similar properties to inorganic semiconductors
  • Wetware computer (or organic computer), a computer built from living neurons and ganglions
  • Organic search engine, search engine which uses a combination of human operators and computer algorithms

Economics and Business:

  • Organic growth, business expansion through increasing output and sales as opposed to mergers, acquisitions and take-overs
  • Organic organization, one which is flexible and has a flat structure


  • Organic (military), a military unit predominantly of one type (armour, infantry, artillery, etc.) may incorporate subunits of a different type, to improve combined arms capability e.g. organic artillery, organic armour



  • Organic (model), forms, methods and patterns found in living systems, often used as a metaphor for non-living things.
  • Organicism, the biological doctrine which stresses the organization, rather than the composition, of organisms
  • Organic disease, involving or affecting physiology or bodily organs.
  • Biological process, or organic process

See also

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