In central and South Asian languages such as Persian, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Albanian language, South Slavic languages such as the Bosnian language, Našinski, Macedonian language and Turkic languages it is called namāz (نماز) from the Indo-European root meaning 'to bow or prostrate'.
The person performing As-salat is a musallī (مصلى), while the traditional prayer mat on which prayer is performed is a musalla.
In the Qur'an it is mentioned that
As-salah is also mentioned as a means to restrain the believer from social wrong and moral deviancy.
The minor ablution is performed using water (wudu) or clean sand or dust (tayammum) when water is not available or not advisable to use such as due to sickness. In Sunni Islam, wudu consists of washing the hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, forehead and hair, ears and feet three times each in that order. Shia first wash their faces, then their arms, and then wipe their heads and feet with the moisture on their hands. Tayammum consists of wiping only the hands and face with sand or dust. Wudu is considered to cleanse a Muslim in a permanent fashion such that it is only necessary to perform it again if an act breaking it has occurred. Tayammum, however, has to be performed before each salat.
The major ablution (ghusl) is required when a person has had sexual intercourse, ejected semen, has had menstrual bleeding or is a new convert to the faith. Ghusl may also be performed voluntarily especially before Friday prayers.
There are 5 elements that make a prayer valid:
There are 13 articles:
 Reciting intention for prayer in the heart
E.g.: I intend to offer 2 raka'ah obligatory prayer of Fajr for Allah Almighty.
It is done simultaneously with  Takbeeratul-Ihram (below).
Saying الله أَكْبَر (God is The Greatest).
 Standing right
For the abled, leaning until it is deemed not standing right invalidates prayer. If one is incapable of standing, he may sit, lay on his right, lay on his left, lay on his back or as he is able to do.
 Reciting Al-Fatiha
Recitation of Al-Fatiha is obligated for every raka'ah.
Reading another surah after Al-Fatiha is also obligatory for the first 2 raka'ah for all obligatory prayers, however it is required in all raka'ah of supererogatory
Ruku' is bowing the body until the palms is on the knees. Stopping means all major body parts including arms, wrists, head, legs stop - as long as saying "subhanallah". If the body still moves, stopping is not done. An additional option is to read 3 times سبحان ربى العظيم و بحمده (Glory to my Lord, the Most Magnificent Most Praiseworthy).
 I'tidal and stopping
I'tidal is standing again after ruku'. While the body is raising up, an additional option is to read سمع الله لمن حمده (Allah Listens to him who praises Him). During standing, an additional option is to read ربنا لك الحمد ملء السموات وملء الأرض وملء ما شئت من شئ بعد (Our Lord, to You is due all praise...). The body must stop as long as saying "subhanallah".
 Prostration [Sajdah]
Prostration involves putting these body parts - the bare forehead, both palms, both knees, the base of both feet's toes - on the place of prostration. The forehead must be bare; a covered forehead invalidates prayer. An additional option is to read 3 times سبحان ربى الأعلى و بحمده (Glory to my Lord, the Most High Most Praiseworthy). There are 2 prostrations, the second is done after sitting between 2 prostrations (as  below).
 Sitting between 2 prostrations
During the sitting between the two prostrations, an additional option is to recite:
" Allahummaghfirli, warhamnii, wajburnii, wahdinii, warzuqnii, warfa'nii, wa'afinii, wa'fu'annii" Oh Allah Forgive Me, grate me, ...
 Final Tashahhud
Reciting the final Tashahhud:
التحيات المبركات الصلوات الطيبات لله
السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته
السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين
أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا رسول الله
All greetings, blessings and good acts are from You, my Lord.
Greetings to you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.
Peace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants of Allah.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah.
And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.
 Sitting for Final Tashahhud
The final Tashahhud must be done while sitting.
 Greetings for Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and for Prophet Abraham (RA)
At least by saying اللهم صلى على محمد.
اللهم صلى على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم
وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم
فى العالمين إنك حميد مجيد
O Allah, bless our Muhammad and the people of Muhammad; As you have blessed Abraham and the people of Abraham.
O Allah, be gracious unto Muhammad and the people of Muhammad; As you were gracious unto Abraham and the people of Abraham.
Surely you are the Most Praiseworthy, the Most Glorious.
 First greeting
Greeting "peace be upon you" to the right side. At least with السلام عليكم, at best السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
 Following the Prayer Sequence
Prayer not in its rightful sequence is invalidated.
From  standing right to the  second prostration makes one raka'ah. These are repeated for every raka'ah. At the last raka'ah, the rest  to  is completed. (Note: For more than 2 raka'ah prayers, an additional option is to sit for Tashahhud on the second raka'ah.)
Salat is performed in "units" of prayer called raka'ah. One raka'ah consists of a series of positions (and movements from one position to the next), along with specific supplications and verses from the Qur'an which are read in each position. A raka'ah begins in a standing position called qiyaam and ends with the musallee in a prostrate position (sujud). Different salat have different numbers of prescribed raka'at.
The salat must be performed with sincere devotion (khushoo), otherwise it is considered invalid. Salat is performed facing the direction of qibla (i.e. towards the Kaaba in Mecca), to the best estimation of the musallee if there is no certain way to determine the correct direction.
The musallee begins the prayer by standing in qiyaam, facing qibla and silently reciting the niyyah (intention to pray) for the specific salat he is about to make. He then raises his hands and speaks aloud the takbir.
For fard as-salat, the first raka'ah commences with the optional recitation of one of the opening supplications followed by the first chapter of the Qur'an, al-Fatihah. For subsequent raka'at and other types of salat, each raka'ah commences with al-Fatihah. During the first two raka'ah, following the recitation of al-Fatihah any other chapter or several verses of the Qur'an are additionally recited (qira'at) while in the standing position before the musallee moves into the bowing position (ruku').
After one raka'ah is complete (and on every subsequent odd raka'ah), the musallee returns from the prostrate position (sujud ) back to the standing position to begin another raka'ah. On every second raka'ah, he first moves from sujud to an upright sitting position (jalsa) and recites the first portion of a supplication known as the tashahhud, before returning to the standing position to begin the next raka'ah.
On the final raka'ah the musallee moves to the jalsa from the sujud position and recites the complete tashahhud. Sunni Muslims then conclude the prayer by turning their face toward the right shoulder and then toward the left shoulder, each time saying a salutation (taslim) to the angels that take note of your good (right shoulder) and evil (left shoulder) deeds.
After the salat is completed it is common (but not compulsory) for Muslims to offer a supplication (du'a) to God. This supplication, which essentially gives Muslims an opportunity to ask God for forgiveness and blessings, can be offered in any language.
Men are required to perform the fard salah in congregation (jama'ah), behind an imam when they are able. According to most Islamic scholars, performing salat in congregation is obligatory for men, when they are able, but is neither required nor forbidden for women.
Some Muslims offer voluntary prayers immediately before and after the prescribed fard prayers. Sunni Muslims classify these prayers as sunnah, while Shi'a Muslims consider them nafil. The number of raka'ah for each of the five obligatory prayers as well as the voluntary prayers (before and after) are listed below:
|Name||Prescribed time period (waqt)||Voluntary before fard1||Fard||Voluntary after fard1|
|Fajr (فجر)||Dawn to sunrise||2 Raka'ah2||2 Raka'ah2||2 Raka'ah||-||-|
|Dhuhr (ظهر)||After true noon until Asr||2-4 Raka'ah2||2-4 Raka'ah||4 Raka'ah4||2 Raka'ah2||-|
|Asr (عصر)||Afternoon. See footnote5 and6||2-4 Raka'ah||2-4 Raka'ah||4 Raka'ah||-||-|
|Maghrib (مغرب)||After sunset until dusk||2-4 Raka'ah||2-4 Raka'ah||3 Raka'ah||2 Raka'ah2||2 Raka'ah3|
|Isha'a (عشاء)||Dusk until dawn6||4 Raka'ah||4 Raka'ah||4 Raka'ah|| 2 Raka'ah 2|
+ 3 Raka'ah Witr
|2 Raka'ah 3 and 7, 8 raka'ah (4 x 2 Raka'ah) Salat al-Layl3|
1According to Shia Muslims, these are to be performed in sets of two raka'ah each.
²Prayed daily by Muhammad (Sunnis)
³Mustahab (praiseworthy) to do everyday. (Shias) 4Replaced by Jumu'ah on Fridays, which consists of two raka'ah.
5According to Imam Abu Hanifa, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Dhuhr)." For the rest of Imams, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Dhuhr)." Asr ends as the sun begins to set. 6According to Shia Muslims, 'Asr prayer and 'Ishaa prayer have no set times but are performed from mid-day. Zuhr and 'Asr prayers must be performed before sunset, and the time for 'Asr prayer starts after Zuhr has been performed. Maghrib and 'Ishaa prayers must be performed before midnight, and the time for 'Ishaa prayer can start after Maghrib has been performed, as long as no more light remains in the western sky signifying the arrival of the true night. 7According to Shia Muslims, this prayer is termed nawafil.
There is no reference to Qasr during travel within the Qur'an itself; the Qur'an allows for Qasr only when there is fear of attack.
To end prayers for the night after isha'a, the odd numbered raka'ah must have the niyyah of "wajib-ul-Lail", which is mandatory to "close" one's salat for that day.
Certain sunnah prayers have prescribed waqts associated with them. Those ordained for before each of the fard prayers must be performed between the first call to prayer (adhan) and the second call (iqama) which signifies the start of the fard prayer. Those sunnah ordained for after the fard prayers can be performed any time between the end of the fard prayers and the end of the current prayer's waqt. Any amount of extra raka'ah may be offered, but most madha'ib prescribe a certain number of raka'ah for each sunnah salah.
This prayer is called "Tahiyyatul masjid"; this is one of the rites of the mosque. Every Muslim entering the mosque is obligated to perform these two rakats.
When the worshippers consist of men and women combined, a man is chosen as the imam. In this situation, women are typically forbidden from performing this role. This point, though unanimously agreed on by the major schools of Islam, is disputed by some groups, based partly on a hadith whose interpretation is controversial. When the congregation consists entirely of women and pre-pubescent children, one woman is chosen as imam.
When men, women, and children are praying, the children's rows are usually between the men's and women's rows, with the men at the front and women at the back. Another configuration is where the men's and women's rows are side by side, separated by a curtain or other barrier, with the primary intention being for there to be no direct line of sight between male and female worshippers, following a Qur'anic injunction toward men and women each lowering their gazes (Qur'an 24:30-31).