is a collective term for several simultaneous arts and cultural festivals
which take place during August each year in Edinburgh
. These festivals are arranged by a number of formally unrelated organizations, meaning there is no single event officially termed the Edinburgh Festival
The Edinburgh Festival, which holds the world record for the largest arts festival in the world, traces its roots to 1947, when the Edinburgh International Festival
(EIF) was established in a post-war effort to "provide a platform for the flowering of the human spirit". That same year, eight theatrical companies "gatecrashed" the Festival by organizing their own event, outside the official auspices of the EIF; this started the movement which grew into the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. The EFF is also referred to as the Edinburgh Fringe
, the Fringe, or, incorrectly, the Edinburgh Fringe Festival.
The EIF and the Fringe remain independent bodies, and organize separate programmes each year. Over the period since 1947, several other Festivals have also been established in Edinburgh - with most of them similarly taking place around August each year. There is therefore not one Edinburgh Festival, but a collection of independent Festivals which happen to take place in the same city at the same time.
List of Edinburgh summer Festivals
The Edinburgh summer Festivals, in order of the year of their foundation, are as follows. An asterisk indicates that the Festival is a member of Festivals Edinburgh, the umbrella body which represents the Edinburgh Festivals to government.
- Edinburgh International Festival (1947)* — The original and "official" festival consisting of classical and contemporary Theatre, Opera, Music and Dance.
- Edinburgh Fringe (1947)* — Started life as a small scale "fringe" event to the EIF, but is now the largest of all the festivals and indeed the largest arts festival in the world. Includes Theatre, Comedy, Music, Musicals, Dance and Children's shows.
- Edinburgh Military Tattoo (1950)*
- Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival (1978)*
- Edinburgh International Book Festival (1983)*
- Edinburgh Mela (1995) — celebrating Edinburgh's South Asian communities
- Edinburgh International Internet Festival (1999)
- Edinburgh People's Festival (2002, but claims heritage from earlier Festival of same name 1951-1954)
- Edinburgh Interactive Festival (2003)
- Edinburgh Art Festival (2004)*
- Edinburgh Annuale (2004) — contemporary art
- Free Edinburgh Fringe Festival (2004) - A Festival of Free shows, and part of the Edinburgh Fringe
- Festival of Politics (2005)
- Festival of Spirituality and Peace (2005)
- iFest (2007) — the Internet Festival and Conference
- Edinburgh Comedy Festival (2008)* - The Comedy programmes from Assembly, Gilded Balloon, Pleasance and Underbelly, and part of the Edinburgh Fringe.
- West Port Book Festival (2008) - a free book festival based around secondhand bookshops in the West Port area
- Edinburgh Book Fringe
- Islam Festival Edinburgh
- Edinburgh Swing Festival
- Edinburgh Harvest Festival
The following Festival also occurs in Edinburgh during August, but is essentially an industry gathering - it does not offer events open to the public.
Film Festival date change
The Edinburgh International Film Festival
or EIFF (founded 1947) was traditionally also held in August. However, from 2008 the EIFF has moved to late June, citing concerns over costs during August and congestion in the international film festival calendar.
Although the phrase "Edinburgh Festival" is generally taken to refer to the August events, a number of other Festivals are held in the city around the year. These include, in calendar order: