When Central Park in New York City was projected (1856), Olmsted and Calvert Vaux prepared the plan that was accepted two years later, and Olmsted superintended its execution. The well-planned public park was a new departure, which Olmsted developed in many other parks and cities, e.g., Prospect Park, Brooklyn, N.Y.; South Park, Chicago; Mt. Royal Park, Montreal; park systems in Buffalo and Boston; and the grounds of the Capitol, Washington, D.C. One of his most spectacular achievements was the laying out of the grounds for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, which he afterward redesigned as Jackson Park. Olmsted also took an interest in the creation of college campuses, e.g., Berkeley (1864), and state and national parks. In addition, he designed parkways and was involved in city planning.
His son, Frederick Law Olmsted, 1870-1957, b. Staten Island, N.Y., grad. Harvard, 1894, was also a landscape architect and city planner. He studied with his father and began practice in 1895. He taught (1900-1914) Harvard's first course in landscape architecture. As a city planner he served on many committees and government boards. In 1901 he was influential in the plan for beautifying Washington, D.C.
See F. L. Olmsted's Forty Years of Landscape Architecture: Central Park, ed. by F. L. Olmsted, Jr., and T. Kimball (1928, repr. 1973); The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted, ed. by C. C. McLaughlin and C. E. Beveridge (5 vol., 1977-97); biographies of the elder Olmsted by L. W. Roper (1974) and W. Rybczynski (1999); studies by J. G. Fabos et al. (1968), E. Barlow (1972), and C. E. Beveridge and P. Rocheleau (1995).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.7 square miles (4.5 km²), of which, 1.7 square miles (4.4 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (2.33%) is water.
There were 139 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.8% were non-families. 36.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the village the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 76.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $19,833, and the median income for a family was $32,188. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the village was $13,615. About 16.9% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 16.9% of those sixty five or over.