Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (February 21, 1822 – December 9, 1908) was an American chemist. He is known for performing the first electrogravimetric analyses, namely the reductions of copper and nickel ions to their respective metals.
Leaving America, Gibbs studied in Germany with Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg, Heinrich Rose, and Justus von Liebig, and in Paris with Auguste Laurent, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, and Henri Victor Regnault, returning to the United States in 1848. In that same year he became professor of chemistry at the Free Academy, now the City College of New York. Gibbs was a candidate for Professor of Physical Science at Columbia in 1854, but his application was rejected because he was a Unitarian. Gibbs became the Rumford professor at Harvard University in 1863, a post he held until his retirement in 1887 as professor emeritus. After retirement he moved to Newport, Rhode Island where he worked for about a decade in his own private laboratory.
Gibbs's researches were mainly in analytical and inorganic chemistry, the cobalt-amines, platinum metals, and complex acids being especially investigated. He also published a number of articles related to spectroscopy and the measurement of wavelengths. Gibbs was said to have been an excellent teacher who contributed many articles to scientific journals.