Oliver Hazard Perry

Oliver Hazard Perry

[per-ee]
Perry, Oliver Hazard, 1785-1819, American naval officer, b. South Kingstown, R.I.; brother of Matthew Calbraith Perry. Appointed a midshipman in 1799, he served in the Tripolitan War, was promoted to lieutenant (1807), and from 1807 to 1809 was engaged in building gunboats. In the War of 1812 he was commissioned to build, equip, and man a fleet at Erie, Pa. On Sept. 10, 1813, Perry's fleet left Put-in-Bay, Ohio, and met a slightly inferior British force. In the subsequent battle, the battle of Lake Erie, Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, was reduced to ruins, but he transferred his flag to the Niagara and shortly forced the British to surrender. His report of the battle sent to Gen. William H. Harrison—"We have met the enemy and they are ours"—has become famous. The victory, which made Perry a national hero, gave the United States control of Lake Erie and helped pave the way for Harrison's victory in the battle of the Thames River, in which Perry participated. After the war he served as a captain in the Mediterranean. Later, on a mission to Venezuela, he contracted yellow fever, died, and was buried in Trinidad. His body was later brought to Newport, R.I., where a monument was erected to him. A memorial to Perry at Put-in-Bay, built 1912-15, was made a national monument in 1936.

See biography by C. J. Dutton (1935); C. O. Paullin, ed., The Battle of Lake Erie (1918); C. S. Forester, The Age of Fighting Sail (1956).

(born Aug. 20, 1785, South Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1819, at sea) U.S. naval officer. The older brother of Matthew Perry, he entered the navy in 1799 and served in the West Indies and the Mediterranean. In 1813 he was ordered to Erie, Pa., to assemble a naval squadron to challenge British control of the Great Lakes in the War of 1812. With 10 small ships, he engaged six British warships in Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). After his flagship was disabled, he was rowed to the Niagara, from which he won the battle by sailing directly into the British line, firing broadside. In reporting the British surrender he wrote, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

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The Oliver Hazard Perry class (sometimes referred to as the Perry class or FFG-7 class), is a class of frigates named after Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. The class was designed in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels, capable of most naval operations, yet cheap enough to be bought in large quantities to replace World War II-era destroyers. 55 ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy. Additionally, 8 were built in Taiwan, 6 in Spain and 2 in Australia for their respective navies, and ex-USN ships have been acquired by the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland and Turkey.

Perry class frigates were designed primarily as Anti-submarine warfare ships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious ships and convoys in low to moderate threat environments in a global war with the Soviet Union. They could also provide limited defense against anti-ship missiles extant in the 70s and 80s. The ships are equipped to escort and protect carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment groups and convoys. They can also conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as counterdrug surveillance, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations. The addition of NTDS, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System (TACTAS) gave these ships a combat capability far beyond the class program expectations, and has made the ships an integral and valued asset in virtually any war-at-sea scenario and particularly well suited for operation in the littoral

Ships

The ships were designed by Maine shipyard Bath Iron Works in partnership with New York-based naval architects Gibbs & Cox.

FFG-7 (often pronounced "fig-seven") class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 m) "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 m) "long-hull" (Flight III) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 33, 36-61) carry the SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters, while the short-hull units carry the less-capable SH-2 Seasprite. The principal difference between the versions is the location of the aft capstan; on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of the flight deck in order to clear the tail rotor of the longer Seahawk helicopter. Long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) system for the SH-60, a variant of a hook and winch that could reel in a Seahawk in flight, expanding the pitch and roll envelope in which flight operations were permitted. FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were built as short-hull ships but later modified into long-hull ships.

U.S. yards constructed FFG-7-class ships for the United States Navy and Royal Australian Navy. Early U.S.-built Australian ships were originally of the short-hull type and modified in the 1980s to the long-hull standard. Yards in Australia, Spain, and Taiwan have produced variants of the long-hull design for their navies.

Although costs rose dramatically over the production run, all 50 ships planned for the USN were eventually built. Some Perry-class vessels are slated to remain in U.S. service for years, but many have been decommissioned. Some of these have been transferred to foreign countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, and Turkey; several have replaced modernized World War II destroyers again — ex-USN ships transferred abroad in the 1970s and 1980s.

Notable combat actions

Perry-class frigates made the news twice during the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be extremely durable. The Persian Gulf was a dangerous place to be during the Iran–Iraq War, and on 17 May 1987, USS Stark was attacked, apparently accidentally, by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet antiship missiles, thirty-seven American sailors died in the deadly prelude to the U.S.'s Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf. Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, the frigate Samuel B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 10 sailors were medevaced from the ship. The U.S. retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being used as bases for raids on merchant shipping, which included the minelaying operations that damaged the Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in U.S. yards and returned to service. The Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006.

Modifications

United States

The United States' active long-hull Perrys are being modified to reduce operating costs. The Detroit Diesel electrical generators are being replaced with modern Caterpillar units and the forward Mk 13 single arm missile launcher has been removed from all active units because the missile it is meant to fire, the Standard SM-1MR, has outlived its service life.

It would be too costly to refit the SM-1MRs, which have marginal ability to bring down sea-skimming missiles. Another reason for withdrawing the SM-1MRs is to focus support on US allied countries, such as Poland and Taiwan, that need it most.

With the removal of the Mk.13 launcher the Perry FFG also loses Harpoon capability (although its SH-60 Seahawk helicopter complement can carry shorter-ranged Penguin anti-ship missiles) and their "zone-defense" AAW capability, and are reduced to a "point-defense" type of AAW armament. The Perrys had never been primarily AAW ships to begin with; the primary AAW ships of the US Navy are the Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers.

The US Navy plans to update the Perrys’ CIWS to Block 1B, which will allow the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot fast-moving surface craft and helicopters. The FFGs are also to be fitted with the Mk 53 DLS Nulka missile decoy system, which will be better than the chaff and flares at guarding against anti-ship missiles.

Australia

As part of a major programme of improvements, a AU$1 billion upgrade project for the Adelaide class is in progress, which will see enhancements to both weapons and equipment. The costs of the project will be partly offset by the decommissioning of the two oldest ships. HMAS Canberra was decommissioned on 12 November 2005 at HMAS Stirling, Garden Island, Western Australia and HMAS Adelaide was decommissioned at HMAS Stirling, Garden Island, in Western Australia on 20 January 2008. The first upgraded vessel, HMAS Sydney, returned to the fleet in 2005. Some of the new features include the ability to fire the SM-2 version of Standard missile, an 8 cell Mk-41 VLS for Evolved Sea Sparrow and enhanced air search radar and long range sonar. Each unit to be upgraded will do so at Garden Island in Sydney, with the modifications taking between 18 months and two years. The ships will be replaced starting in 2013 by three new air defence destroyers equipped with the Aegis combat system.

Turkey

The Turkish Navy has commenced the modernization of its G class frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi) combat management system. The first GENESIS upgraded ship was delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011. The short hull Perry class frigates that are currently being operated by the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Istanbul Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add 8-cell Mk.41 vertical launching systems for ESSM, to be fitted in front of the Mk.13 launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of the Australian Adelaide class frigates. There are also plans to install components that are being developed for the Milgem class warships (Ada class corvettes and F-100 class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern 3D and X-Band radars developed by Aselsan and national hull-mounted sonars. One of the G class frigates will also be used as a testbed for Turkey's 4,500-ton TF-2000 class AAW frigates that are currently being designed by the Turkish Naval Institute.

Operators

  • (Adelaide class): The Royal Australian Navy purchased six frigates. Four of them were built in the United States while the other two were built in Australia. They were upgraded in the early 2000s, with the addition of an 8-cell Mk.41 VLS with 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) missiles.
  • : FFG-24 gift of U.S. Government in 1996, re-christened Sabha.
  • (Mubarak class): Four frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy.
  • : Two frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy in 2002 and 2003.
  • (Cheng Kung class): Taiwan built eight ships equipped with the Hsuing Feng II anti-ship missiles, which are expected to be replaced by Harpoon.
  • (Santa Maria class): Spain built six ships.
  • (G class): Eight ex-U.S. Navy frigates are operational, with two more delivered as parts hulks. The transfer of two additional Perry class ex-USN frigates (FFG-12 and FFG-14) to Turkey was approved by the U.S. Congress on 24/10/2007 and is pending approval by the Turkish Navy.
  • : The U.S. Navy commissioned 51 FFG-7 class frigates between 1977 and 1989. As of early 2008, 30 long-hull frigates remain in active service.

Units

Ship Name Hull No. Builder Commission–
Decommission
Fate Link
U.S.-built
Oliver Hazard Perry FFG-7 Bath Iron Works 1977-1997 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 04/21/2006
McInerney FFG-8 Bath Iron Works 1979-
Wadsworth FFG-9 Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 1978-2002 Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. T. Kos'ciuszko (273)
Duncan FFG-10 Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 1980-1994 Transferred to Turkey as parts hulk
Clark FFG-11 Bath Iron Works 1980-2000 Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. K. Pulaski (272)
George Philip FFG-12 Todd, San Pedro 1980-2003 Stricken, to be disposed of, 5/24/2004 (to be transferred to Turkey in the summer of 2008
Samuel Eliot Morison FFG-13 Bath Iron Works 1980-2002 Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokova (F 496)
USS Sides FFG-14 Todd, San Pedro 1981-2003 Stricken, to be disposed of, 5/24/2004, to be transferred to Turkey in the summer of 2008
Estocin FFG-15 Bath Iron Works 1981-2003 transferred to Turkey as TCG Goksu (F 497)
Clifton Sprague FFG-16 Bath Iron Works 1981-1995 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gaziantep (F 490)
built for Australia as HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01) FFG-17 Todd, Seattle 1980-2008 Decommissioned, to be sunk as dive reef
built for Australia as HMAS Canberra (FFG 02) FFG-18 Todd, Seattle 1981- Decommissioned, to be sunk as dive reef
John A. Moore FFG-19 Todd, San Pedro 1981-2001 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gediz (F 495)
Antrim FFG-20 Todd, Seattle 1981-1996 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gemlik (F 492)
Flatley FFG-21 Bath Iron Works 1981-1996 transferred to Turkey as TCG Giresun (F 491))
Fahrion FFG-22 Todd, Seattle 1982-1998 transferred to Egypt as Sharm El-Sheik (F 901)

Lewis B. Puller FFG-23 Todd, San Pedro 1982-1998 transferred to Egypt as Toushka (F 906)
Jack Williams FFG-24 Bath Iron Works 1981-1996 transferred to Bahrain as Sabha (90)
Copeland FFG-25 Todd, San Pedro 1982-1996 transferred to Egypt as Mubarak (F 911)
Gallery FFG-26 Bath Iron Works 1981-1996 transferred to Egypt as Taba (F 916)
Mahlon S. Tisdale FFG-27 Todd, San Pedro 1982-1996 TCG Gokceada (F 494)>TCG Gokceada (F 494)
Boone FFG-28 Todd, Seattle 1982- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998
Stephen W. Groves FFG-29 Bath Iron Works 1982- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1997
Reid FFG-30 Todd, San Pedro 1983-1998 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (F 493)
Stark FFG-31 Todd, Seattle 1982-1999 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 6/21/2006
John L. Hall FFG-32 Bath Iron Works 1982-
Jarrett FFG-33 Todd, San Pedro 1983-
Aubrey Fitch FFG-34 Bath Iron Works 1982-1997 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 5/19/2005
built for Australia as HMAS Sydney (FFG 03) FFG-35 Todd, Seattle 1983-
Underwood FFG-36 Bath Iron Works 1983-
Crommelin FFG-37 Todd, Seattle 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2003
Curts FFG-38 Todd, San Pedro 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998
Doyle FFG-39 Bath Iron Works 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002
Halyburton FFG-40 Todd, Seattle 1983-
McClusky FFG-41 Todd, San Pedro 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002
Klakring FFG-42 Bath Iron Works 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002
Thach FFG-43 Todd, San Pedro 1984-
built for Australia as HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) FFG-44 Todd, Seattle 1984-
Dewert FFG-45 Bath Iron Works 1983-
Rentz FFG-46 Todd, San Pedro 1984-
Nicholas FFG-47 Bath Iron Works 1984-
Vandegrift FFG-48 Todd, Seattle 1984-
Robert G. Bradley FFG-49 Bath Iron Works 1984-
Taylor FFG-50 Bath Iron Works 1984-
Gary FFG-51 Todd, San Pedro 1984-
Carr FFG-52 Todd, Seattle 1985-
Hawes FFG-53 Bath Iron Works 1985-
Ford FFG-54 Todd, San Pedro 1985-
Elrod FFG-55 Bath Iron Works 1985-
Simpson FFG-56 Bath Iron Works 1985- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002
Reuben James FFG-57 Todd, San Pedro 1986-
Samuel B. Roberts FFG-58 Bath Iron Works 1986-
Kauffman FFG-59 bath Iron Works 1987-
Rodney M. Davis FFG-60 Todd, San Pedro 1987- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002
Ingraham FFG-61 Todd, San Pedro 1989-
Australian-built
HMAS Melbourne FFG 05 Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated (AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria 1992-
HMAS Newcastle FFG 06 AMECON, Williamstown 1993-
Spanish-built
SPS Santa María F81 Bazan, Ferrol 1986-
SPS Victoria F82 Bazan, Ferrol 1987-
SPS Numancia F83 Bazan, Ferrol 1989-
SPS Reina Sofía F84 Bazan, Ferrol 1990-
SPS Navarra F85 Bazan, Ferrol 1994-
SPS Canarias F86 Bazan, Ferrol 1995-
Taiwanese-built
ROCS Cheng Kung FFG-1101 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1993-
ROCS Cheng Ho FFG-1103 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1994-
ROCS Chi Kuang FFG-1105 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1995-
ROCS Yueh Fei FFG-1106 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1996-
ROCS Tzu I FFG-1107 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1997-
ROCS Pan Chao FFG-1108 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1997-
ROCS Chang Chien FFG-1109 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 1998-
ROCS Tian Dan FFG-1110 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan 2004-

References

Further reading

External links

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