See biography by C. J. Dutton (1935); C. O. Paullin, ed., The Battle of Lake Erie (1918); C. S. Forester, The Age of Fighting Sail (1956).
(born Aug. 20, 1785, South Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1819, at sea) U.S. naval officer. The older brother of Matthew Perry, he entered the navy in 1799 and served in the West Indies and the Mediterranean. In 1813 he was ordered to Erie, Pa., to assemble a naval squadron to challenge British control of the Great Lakes in the War of 1812. With 10 small ships, he engaged six British warships in Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). After his flagship was disabled, he was rowed to the Niagara, from which he won the battle by sailing directly into the British line, firing broadside. In reporting the British surrender he wrote, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
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Perry class frigates were designed primarily as Anti-submarine warfare ships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious ships and convoys in low to moderate threat environments in a global war with the Soviet Union. They could also provide limited defense against anti-ship missiles extant in the 70s and 80s. The ships are equipped to escort and protect carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment groups and convoys. They can also conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as counterdrug surveillance, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations. The addition of NTDS, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System (TACTAS) gave these ships a combat capability far beyond the class program expectations, and has made the ships an integral and valued asset in virtually any war-at-sea scenario and particularly well suited for operation in the littoral
FFG-7 (often pronounced "fig-seven") class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 m) "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 m) "long-hull" (Flight III) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 33, 36-61) carry the SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters, while the short-hull units carry the less-capable SH-2 Seasprite. The principal difference between the versions is the location of the aft capstan; on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of the flight deck in order to clear the tail rotor of the longer Seahawk helicopter. Long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) system for the SH-60, a variant of a hook and winch that could reel in a Seahawk in flight, expanding the pitch and roll envelope in which flight operations were permitted. FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were built as short-hull ships but later modified into long-hull ships.
U.S. yards constructed FFG-7-class ships for the United States Navy and Royal Australian Navy. Early U.S.-built Australian ships were originally of the short-hull type and modified in the 1980s to the long-hull standard. Yards in Australia, Spain, and Taiwan have produced variants of the long-hull design for their navies.
Although costs rose dramatically over the production run, all 50 ships planned for the USN were eventually built. Some Perry-class vessels are slated to remain in U.S. service for years, but many have been decommissioned. Some of these have been transferred to foreign countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, and Turkey; several have replaced modernized World War II destroyers again — ex-USN ships transferred abroad in the 1970s and 1980s.
Perry-class frigates made the news twice during the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be extremely durable. The Persian Gulf was a dangerous place to be during the Iran–Iraq War, and on 17 May 1987, USS Stark was attacked, apparently accidentally, by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet antiship missiles, thirty-seven American sailors died in the deadly prelude to the U.S.'s Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf. Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, the frigate Samuel B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 10 sailors were medevaced from the ship. The U.S. retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being used as bases for raids on merchant shipping, which included the minelaying operations that damaged the Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in U.S. yards and returned to service. The Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006.
It would be too costly to refit the SM-1MRs, which have marginal ability to bring down sea-skimming missiles. Another reason for withdrawing the SM-1MRs is to focus support on US allied countries, such as Poland and Taiwan, that need it most.
With the removal of the Mk.13 launcher the Perry FFG also loses Harpoon capability (although its SH-60 Seahawk helicopter complement can carry shorter-ranged Penguin anti-ship missiles) and their "zone-defense" AAW capability, and are reduced to a "point-defense" type of AAW armament. The Perrys had never been primarily AAW ships to begin with; the primary AAW ships of the US Navy are the Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers.
The US Navy plans to update the Perrys’ CIWS to Block 1B, which will allow the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot fast-moving surface craft and helicopters. The FFGs are also to be fitted with the Mk 53 DLS Nulka missile decoy system, which will be better than the chaff and flares at guarding against anti-ship missiles.
The Turkish Navy has commenced the modernization of its G class frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi) combat management system. The first GENESIS upgraded ship was delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011. The short hull Perry class frigates that are currently being operated by the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Istanbul Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add 8-cell Mk.41 vertical launching systems for ESSM, to be fitted in front of the Mk.13 launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of the Australian Adelaide class frigates. There are also plans to install components that are being developed for the Milgem class warships (Ada class corvettes and F-100 class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern 3D and X-Band radars developed by Aselsan and national hull-mounted sonars. One of the G class frigates will also be used as a testbed for Turkey's 4,500-ton TF-2000 class AAW frigates that are currently being designed by the Turkish Naval Institute.
|Ship Name||Hull No.||Builder||Commission–|
|Oliver Hazard Perry||FFG-7||Bath Iron Works||1977-1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 04/21/2006|
|McInerney||FFG-8||Bath Iron Works||1979-|
|Wadsworth||FFG-9||Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro||1978-2002||Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. T. Kos'ciuszko (273)|
|Duncan||FFG-10||Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle||1980-1994||Transferred to Turkey as parts hulk|
|Clark||FFG-11||Bath Iron Works||1980-2000||Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. K. Pulaski (272)|
|George Philip||FFG-12||Todd, San Pedro||1980-2003||Stricken, to be disposed of, 5/24/2004 (to be transferred to Turkey in the summer of 2008|
|Samuel Eliot Morison||FFG-13||Bath Iron Works||1980-2002||Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokova (F 496)|
|USS Sides||FFG-14||Todd, San Pedro||1981-2003||Stricken, to be disposed of, 5/24/2004, to be transferred to Turkey in the summer of 2008|
|Estocin||FFG-15||Bath Iron Works||1981-2003||transferred to Turkey as TCG Goksu (F 497)|
|Clifton Sprague||FFG-16||Bath Iron Works||1981-1995||transferred to Turkey as TCG Gaziantep (F 490)|
|built for Australia as HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01)||FFG-17||Todd, Seattle||1980-2008||Decommissioned, to be sunk as dive reef|
|built for Australia as HMAS Canberra (FFG 02)||FFG-18||Todd, Seattle||1981-||Decommissioned, to be sunk as dive reef|
|John A. Moore||FFG-19||Todd, San Pedro||1981-2001||transferred to Turkey as TCG Gediz (F 495)|
|Antrim||FFG-20||Todd, Seattle||1981-1996||transferred to Turkey as TCG Gemlik (F 492)|
|Flatley||FFG-21||Bath Iron Works||1981-1996||transferred to Turkey as TCG Giresun (F 491))|
|Fahrion||FFG-22||Todd, Seattle||1982-1998||transferred to Egypt as Sharm El-Sheik (F 901)|
|Lewis B. Puller||FFG-23||Todd, San Pedro||1982-1998||transferred to Egypt as Toushka (F 906)|
|Jack Williams||FFG-24||Bath Iron Works||1981-1996||transferred to Bahrain as Sabha (90)|
|Copeland||FFG-25||Todd, San Pedro||1982-1996||transferred to Egypt as Mubarak (F 911)|
|Gallery||FFG-26||Bath Iron Works||1981-1996||transferred to Egypt as Taba (F 916)|
|Mahlon S. Tisdale||FFG-27||Todd, San Pedro||1982-1996||TCG Gokceada (F 494)>TCG Gokceada (F 494)|
|Boone||FFG-28||Todd, Seattle||1982-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998|
|Stephen W. Groves||FFG-29||Bath Iron Works||1982-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1997|
|Reid||FFG-30||Todd, San Pedro||1983-1998||transferred to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (F 493)|
|Stark||FFG-31||Todd, Seattle||1982-1999||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 6/21/2006|
|John L. Hall||FFG-32||Bath Iron Works||1982-|
|Jarrett||FFG-33||Todd, San Pedro||1983-|
|Aubrey Fitch||FFG-34||Bath Iron Works||1982-1997||Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 5/19/2005|
|built for Australia as HMAS Sydney (FFG 03)||FFG-35||Todd, Seattle||1983-|
|Underwood||FFG-36||Bath Iron Works||1983-|
|Crommelin||FFG-37||Todd, Seattle||1983-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2003|
|Curts||FFG-38||Todd, San Pedro||1983-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998|
|Doyle||FFG-39||Bath Iron Works||1983-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002|
|McClusky||FFG-41||Todd, San Pedro||1983-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002|
|Klakring||FFG-42||Bath Iron Works||1983-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002|
|Thach||FFG-43||Todd, San Pedro||1984-|
|built for Australia as HMAS Darwin (FFG 04)||FFG-44||Todd, Seattle||1984-|
|Dewert||FFG-45||Bath Iron Works||1983-|
|Rentz||FFG-46||Todd, San Pedro||1984-|
|Nicholas||FFG-47||Bath Iron Works||1984-|
|Robert G. Bradley||FFG-49||Bath Iron Works||1984-|
|Taylor||FFG-50||Bath Iron Works||1984-|
|Gary||FFG-51||Todd, San Pedro||1984-|
|Hawes||FFG-53||Bath Iron Works||1985-|
|Ford||FFG-54||Todd, San Pedro||1985-|
|Elrod||FFG-55||Bath Iron Works||1985-|
|Simpson||FFG-56||Bath Iron Works||1985-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002|
|Reuben James||FFG-57||Todd, San Pedro||1986-|
|Samuel B. Roberts||FFG-58||Bath Iron Works||1986-|
|Kauffman||FFG-59||bath Iron Works||1987-|
|Rodney M. Davis||FFG-60||Todd, San Pedro||1987-||Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002|
|Ingraham||FFG-61||Todd, San Pedro||1989-|
|HMAS Melbourne||FFG 05||Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated (AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria||1992-|
|HMAS Newcastle||FFG 06||AMECON, Williamstown||1993-|
|SPS Santa María||F81||Bazan, Ferrol||1986-|
|SPS Victoria||F82||Bazan, Ferrol||1987-|
|SPS Numancia||F83||Bazan, Ferrol||1989-|
|SPS Reina Sofía||F84||Bazan, Ferrol||1990-|
|SPS Navarra||F85||Bazan, Ferrol||1994-|
|SPS Canarias||F86||Bazan, Ferrol||1995-|
|ROCS Cheng Kung||FFG-1101||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1993-|
|ROCS Cheng Ho||FFG-1103||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1994-|
|ROCS Chi Kuang||FFG-1105||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1995-|
|ROCS Yueh Fei||FFG-1106||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1996-|
|ROCS Tzu I||FFG-1107||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1997-|
|ROCS Pan Chao||FFG-1108||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1997-|
|ROCS Chang Chien||FFG-1109||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||1998-|
|ROCS Tian Dan||FFG-1110||China Shipbuilding, Kaohsuing, Taiwan||2004-|