Oliver

Oliver

[ol-uh-ver]
Wolcott, Oliver, 1726-97, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. South Windsor (then in Windsor), Conn.; son of Roger Wolcott. He fought in King George's War, and upon his return to Connecticut he entered a legal and public career. Wolcott held several judicial posts and in 1775 was named a Native American commissioner to obtain the neutrality of the Iroquois in the conflict with Great Britain. He was a general in the Saratoga campaign and a prominent figure in Connecticut politics as a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775-78, 1780-84), lieutenant governor (1786-96), and governor (1796-97).
Wolcott, Oliver, 1760-1833, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (1795-1800), b. Litchfield, Conn; son of Oliver Wolcott. Admitted to the bar in 1781, he served as Connecticut comptroller (1788-89), auditor of the U.S. treasury (1789-91), and U.S. comptroller (1791-95). A Federalist and loyal follower of Alexander Hamilton, he succeeded Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury and was bitterly, but unfairly, attacked by Republicans for misappropriating funds. Wolcott left the Federalist party during the War of 1812, and was elected (1817) governor of Connecticut as a Republican, serving until 1827. As president of the 1818 state constitutional convention, he led the successful fight for a wider suffrage, an independent judiciary, and the disestablishment of the Congregationalist Church.
Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658, lord protector of England.

Parliamentary General

The son of a gentry family, he entered Cambridge in 1616 but probably left the next year. Cromwell entered Parliament in 1628, standing firmly with the opposition to Charles I, and was active in the Short and Long Parliaments (1640), although not a conspicuous leader. During the first civil war (see English civil war) he rose rapidly to leadership because of his military ability and his genius for organizing and inspiring the parliamentary armies. His own regiment, the Ironsides, distinguished itself at Marston Moor (1644) and in numerous minor engagements.

In 1644 he pressed for a thorough reorganization of the parliamentary forces and was appointed (1645) second in command to Sir Thomas Fairfax (later Baron Fairfax of Cameron) in the resulting New Model Army, which defeated the king at Naseby in 1645. In the quarrel between the army and Parliament following the first civil war, Cromwell supported the sectarians in the army and approved the seizure (1647) of Charles from Parliament. However, he favored a moderate settlement with the king (as opposed to the radical proposals of the Levelers) until Charles's flight to Carisbrooke (1647) and secret dealings with the Scots caused him to lose all hope of further negotiations with the king.

In the second civil war he repelled the Scottish royalist invasion at Preston (1648). His political power was enhanced by the removal of Presbyterian leaders from Parliament in Pride's Purge (see under Pride, Thomas), and at the king's trial (1649) his was the leading voice demanding execution.

Lord Protector

In 1649, after the proclamation of the republican Commonwealth, Cromwell led a punitive expedition into Ireland, especially remembered for the massacre of the royalist garrison at Drogheda. He then initiated a policy of systematic dispossession of the Irish, transferring their lands to Protestant proprietors. In 1650 he invaded Scotland and routed the Scottish royalists at Dunbar; later he defeated the Scots and Charles II himself at Worcester (1651) and left the rest of the conquest of Scotland to Gen. George Monck.

Cromwell, now virtual dictator of the Commonwealth, dissolved the Rump Parliament in 1653 after it had failed to effect reforms demanded by the army and had sought to perpetuate its power. His attempt to replace it by the Nominated (Barebone's) Parliament (see Barebone, Praise-God), appointed by himself from nominations of the Independent congregations, resulted in a reckless, hopelessly divided body that was finally forced to dissolve itself. A group of army officers then drew up the constitutional document known as the Instrument of Government (1653), by which Cromwell became lord protector (see Protectorate). The Parliament of 1654, which was elected under the terms of the same document, wanted to prepare a new constitution and was soon dissolved.

After that Cromwell resorted to open military government, dividing England into 11 districts, each administered by a major-general. Another, more amenable Parliament was summoned in 1656, and in 1657 it presented to Cromwell a new constitution known as the Humble Petition and Advice and offered him the crown. He declined the crown but accepted (with some modifications) the Humble Petition, which further increased his power and set up a second legislative chamber. The second session of this same Parliament, however, challenged the new constitution, and Cromwell dissolved it (1658) seven months before his death.

Cromwell's foreign policy was governed by the need to expand English trade and prevent the restoration of the Stuarts, and by the desire to build up a Protestant league and enhance the prestige of the English republic. He approved the Navigation Act of 1651, which led to the first (1652-54) of the Dutch Wars, and he pressed the war against Spain (1655-58) as a means of encroaching on Spanish rights of colonization in America. The Dutch war resulted in several important naval victories for the English under Admiral Robert Blake, but the Spanish war, apart from the sinking of a Spanish fleet (also by Blake), brought only Jamaica and imposed a great strain on English finances.

Character and Influence

Opinions of Cromwell have always varied widely. His military skill and force of character are universally recognized. He met the task of holding together the gains of the civil wars and the discordant groups in the Puritan party in what seemed the only practical way. This involved force and intolerance, which were evidently alien to him personally, for he professed love for both toleration and constitutional government. Only Jews and non-Anglican Protestants (excepting Quakers) were tolerated during his rule, however, and he found it impossible to cooperate with Parliament in governing. His government, dependent on his own strong character, costly in its foreign policy, and representing a break in English institutions and a minority religious viewpoint, could not survive him long, and he was succeeded briefly as protector by his son Richard.

Bibliography

See the writings and speeches of Oliver Cromwell (ed. by W. C. Abbott et al., 4 vol., 1937-47); biographies by M. P. Ashley (1969), J. E. C. Hill (1970), C. V. Wedgwood (rev. ed. 1973), and A. Fraser (1973); M. P. Ashley, The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell (1957, repr. 1966); writings on the period by S. R. Gardiner and Sir Charles Firth.

Oliver, Andrew, 1706-74, lieutenant governor of colonial Massachusetts (1771-73), b. Boston. Oliver was elected to the provincial council in 1746 and later served as secretary of the province. His acceptance of the post of stamp officer after the passage of the Stamp Act led to violent demonstrations against him, which forced him to resign the office. He became lieutenant governor in 1771, but popular indignation against him broke out again in 1773 as the result of the discovery of private letters he and Gov. Thomas Hutchinson had written to England criticizing the colonists and recommending coercive measures.
Oliver or Olivier, Isaac, 1556?-1617, English miniature painter. Oliver was a worthy follower of Hilliard as miniature painter to Elizabeth's court. His work, more naturalistic than Hilliard's, is to be seen in the British and the Victoria and Albert museums, London, and in the Cleveland Museum. His son and pupil, Peter Oliver, c.1594-1648?, was also an important miniaturist. He painted numerous watercolor copies of old masters, most of which are now in Windsor Castle.
Oliver, King (Joseph Oliver), 1885-1938, American jazz musician, b. Abend, La. Oliver began his professional career in 1904 with the Onward Brass Band. After playing with leading bands in New Orleans and establishing himself as a master cornetist, he moved to Chicago in 1918. From 1920 to 1923 he led the Creole Jazz Band, which became the greatest exponent of the New Orleans, or "Dixieland," jazz idiom. Oliver's style was noted for its bursting, exuberant power and its great range. He strongly influenced Louis Armstrong.

See M. T. Williams, King Oliver (1961), and G. Schuller, Early Jazz (1968).

Ellsworth, Oliver, 1745-1807, American political leader, third Chief Justice of the United States (1796-1800), b. Windsor, Conn. A Hartford lawyer, he was (1778-83) a member of the Continental Congress during the American Revolution. His great service was at the U.S. Constitutional Convention, where he and Roger Sherman advanced the "Connecticut compromise," ending the struggle between large and small states over representation. He also served on the five-member committee that prepared the first draft of the Constitution, and was responsible for the use of the term "United States" in the document. In Connecticut, he played (1788) an important role in the state ratifying convention. As U.S. senator (1789-96), he was a leader of the Federalists and largely drafted the bill that set up the federal judiciary and gave the U.S. Supreme Court the authority to review state supreme court decisions. Ellsworth later served (1799-1800) as a commissioner to negotiate with the French government concerning the restrictions put on American vessels.

See biography by W. G. Brown (1905).

Pollock, Oliver, 1737-1823, American merchant, b. Ireland. He arrived in America at the age of 23 and became a successful merchant. After moving to New Orleans, Pollock speculated advantageously in land and in the slave trade and gained the confidence of the Spanish government. He contributed generously to the cause of the colonies in the American Revolution, obtained supplies from the Spanish, and helped finance George Rogers Clark's conquest of the Northwest. After the war the American government met its debts to him, but repayment was tardy and incomplete.

See biography by J. A. James (1937, repr. 1970).

La Farge, Oliver, 1901-63, American writer and anthropologist, b. New York City, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1924; M.A., 1929). He conducted three archaeological expeditions to Arizona and also ethnological expeditions to Guatemala and Mexico. La Farge used his field experience to authenticate his reflective stories of Native American habit and character. Laughing Boy (1929), a novel of Navajo life, won him the Pulitzer Prize in 1930. Other works are The Sparks Fly Upward (1931), The Enemy Gods (1937), and the stories All the Young Men (1935). Santa Fe recounts the history of that city.

See his autobiographical Raw Material (1945); biographies by E. Gillis (1967), D. McNickle (1971), and T. M. Pearce (1972).

Holden, Oliver, 1765-1844, American composer and compiler of hymns, b. Shirley, Mass. His popular tune Coronation, to Edward Perronet's hymn All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name, first appeared in his Union Harmony (1793). With Samuel Holyoke and Hans Gram he edited The Massachusetts Compiler (1795), an important collection and study of sacred vocal music.
Evans, Oliver, 1755-1819, American inventor, b. near Newport, Del. He joined his brothers in a flour-milling business in Wilmington, and after studying similar earlier devices, he developed, installed, and patented a number of grain-handling machines. These inventions included an elevator, a conveyor, a descender, and a hopper boy; a generation later they were standard equipment in U.S. mills. The flour mill he built in the 1780s was completely automatic, constituting the first continuous-flow production line in history. His Young Mill-Wright & Miller's Guide (1795) went through many editions. After experimenting with a steam carriage to run on ordinary roads, Evans turned his attention to stationary steam engines. He was a pioneer in the building of high-pressure engines, and after establishing the Mars Iron Works in 1807 built about 50 engines, most of them used in pumping. He built the first steam river dredge to be used in the United States, bringing it to the river under its own power.
St. John, Oliver, 1598?-1673, English politician. He married (1638) a cousin of Oliver Cromwell. In 1637-38 he was, by his brilliant defense of John Hampden in the ship money case, drawn into the opposition to Charles I. Although Charles appointed (1641) him solicitor general, St. John remained a conspicuous opposition leader in the Long Parliament, taking a leading part in the attainder (1641) of Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford. He supported Cromwell and the army against Parliament in 1647 and was made (1648) chief justice of common pleas. He refused to take part in the trial (1649) of Charles I. St. John was one of the commissioners who negotiated (1652) the union with Scotland. His friendship with Cromwell cooled during the Protectorate, and he cooperated with Gen. George Monck in effecting the Restoration (1660) of the monarchy. In his Case of Oliver St. John (1660) he denied complicity in the execution of Charles I and the establishment of the Commonwealth. He was punished only with exclusion from holding office. He lived abroad after 1662.
Heaviside, Oliver, 1850-1925, English physicist. He did valuable work in telephony and in the theory of electrical conduction in cables and other areas of electric theory. He suggested (1902) the existence of a layer in the upper atmosphere responsible for altering the path of certain radio waves and thus making possible long-distance transmission of signals. The same conclusion was reached independently by Arthur E. Kennelly; its existence was proven, and it is known both as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer and as the Heaviside layer. See ionosphere.
Stone, Oliver, 1946-, American filmmaker, screenwriter, and producer, b. New York City, studied filmmaking with Martin Scorsese at New York Univ. (B.F.A., 1971). Stone enlisted (1967) in the army and saw combat in Vietnam, winning a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart. He adapted the screenplay for Midnight Express (1978; Academy Award) and created other scripts before directing his first Hollywood film, The Hand (1981). Stone won critical plaudits for Salvador (1986), but it was not until he wrote and directed the grimly realistic Vietnam War drama Platoon (1986; Academy Award, best director) that he catapulted to popular success. In his exploration of various uniquely American themes, Stone has become a controversial figure, frequently criticized for mingling fact and fiction in some films (e.g., JFK, 1991) and for portraying extreme violence in others (e.g., Natural Born Killers, 1994). His many other movies include Wall Street (1987), Born on the Fourth of July (1989; Academy Award, best director), The Doors (1991), Nixon (1995), World Trade Center (2006), and W. (2008, a dramatized portrait of George W. Bush).

See his Platoon and Salvador: The Screenplays (1987) and his autobiographical novel A Child's Night Dream (written 1966, pub. 1997); N. Kagan, The Cinema of Oliver Stone (1995); D. Kunz, ed., The Films of Oliver Stone (1997); C. Salewicz, Oliver Stone, Close Up (1998).

Goldsmith, Oliver, 1730?-1774, Anglo-Irish author. The son of an Irish clergyman, he was graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1749. He studied medicine at Edinburgh and Leiden, but his career as a physician was quite unsuccessful. In 1756 he settled in London, where he achieved some success as a miscellaneous contributor to periodicals and as the author of Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe (1759). But it was not until The Citizen of the World (1762), a series of whimsical and satirical essays, that he was recognized as an able man of letters. His fame grew with The Traveler (1764), a philosophic poem, and the nostalgic pastoral The Deserted Village (1770). However, his literary reputation rests on his two comedies, The Good-natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1773), and his only novel, The Vicar of Wakefield (1766). His comedies injected a much-needed sense of realism into the dull, sentimental plays of the period. They are lively, witty, and imbued with an endearing humanity. The Vicar of Wakefield is the warm, humorous, if somewhat melodramatic, story of a country parson and his family. Although he earned a great deal of money in his lifetime, Goldsmith's improvidence kept him poor. Boswell depicted him as a ridiculous, blundering, but tenderhearted and generous creature. He had the friendship of many of the literary and artistic great of his day, the most notable being that of Samuel Johnson.

See biography by R. M. Wardle (1957, repr. 1969); R. Quintana (1967), R. H. Hopkins (1969), R. L. Harp (1976), and J. Giner (1978).

Smithies, Oliver, 1925-, American geneticist, b. Halifax, England, Ph.D., Oxford, 1951. Smithies was on the faculty at the Univ. of Toronto (1953-60) and Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (1960-88) before becoming a professor at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. With Sir Martin Evans and Mario Capecchi, he was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, which recognized their contributions to the development of gene targeting, a technique that enables individual genes to be "knocked out" of mice DNA and replaced with others. Smithies went on to use gene targeting to investigate inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

(born Nov. 20, 1726, Windsor, Conn.—died Dec. 1, 1797, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.) American public official. He was a member of the Connecticut council (1771–86), a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775–76, 1778, 1780–84), and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He raised a local militia to fight in the American Revolution and led troops in the defense of Connecticut (1779). As a commissioner of northern Indian affairs, he negotiated the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. He served as lieutenant governor (1787–96) and later governor (1796–97) of Connecticut.

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(born 1629, Loughcrew, County Meath, Ire.—died July 1, 1681, London, Eng.; canonized 1975; feast day July 11) Irish prelate, the last man to suffer martyrdom for the Catholic faith in England. He was ordained in Rome, where he taught theology and represented the Irish bishops at the Holy See. In 1669 he was appointed archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, and he worked to restore the disorganized church in Ireland. Renewed persecution forced him into hiding in 1673. In the anti-Catholic hysteria caused by the Titus Oates plot (1678), he was betrayed and imprisoned in Dublin in 1679. After a farcical trial in London, he was convicted of treason and was hanged, drawn, and quartered. His head, originally sent to Rome, is preserved at Drogheda, and his body is at Downside Abbey, near Bath.

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(born 1629, Loughcrew, County Meath, Ire.—died July 1, 1681, London, Eng.; canonized 1975; feast day July 11) Irish prelate, the last man to suffer martyrdom for the Catholic faith in England. He was ordained in Rome, where he taught theology and represented the Irish bishops at the Holy See. In 1669 he was appointed archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, and he worked to restore the disorganized church in Ireland. Renewed persecution forced him into hiding in 1673. In the anti-Catholic hysteria caused by the Titus Oates plot (1678), he was betrayed and imprisoned in Dublin in 1679. After a farcical trial in London, he was convicted of treason and was hanged, drawn, and quartered. His head, originally sent to Rome, is preserved at Drogheda, and his body is at Downside Abbey, near Bath.

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(born Aug. 20, 1785, South Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1819, at sea) U.S. naval officer. The older brother of Matthew Perry, he entered the navy in 1799 and served in the West Indies and the Mediterranean. In 1813 he was ordered to Erie, Pa., to assemble a naval squadron to challenge British control of the Great Lakes in the War of 1812. With 10 small ships, he engaged six British warships in Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). After his flagship was disabled, he was rowed to the Niagara, from which he won the battle by sailing directly into the British line, firing broadside. In reporting the British surrender he wrote, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

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orig. Joseph Oliver

(born May 11, 1885, Abend, La., U.S.—died April 8, 1938, Savannah, Ga.) U.S. jazz cornetist and bandleader. Oliver grew up in New Orleans and established himself as the city's preeminent cornetist, coleading a band with trombonist Kid Ory (1886–1973) before moving to Chicago in 1918. In 1922 Oliver hired his New Orleans protégé Louis Armstrong to join him in Chicago in his Creole Jazz Band. Their recordings together, including “Dipper Mouth Blues,” are jazz classics.

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(born Nov. 20, 1726, Windsor, Conn.—died Dec. 1, 1797, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.) American public official. He was a member of the Connecticut council (1771–86), a delegate to the Continental Congress (1775–76, 1778, 1780–84), and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He raised a local militia to fight in the American Revolution and led troops in the defense of Connecticut (1779). As a commissioner of northern Indian affairs, he negotiated the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. He served as lieutenant governor (1787–96) and later governor (1796–97) of Connecticut.

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(born Aug. 29, 1809, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1894, Cambridge) U.S. physician, poet, and humourist. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1847 and later became dean of its medical school. He won national acclaim with his poem “Old Ironsides” (1830). From 1857 he published his “Breakfast-Table” essays in The Atlantic Monthly, later republished in such collections as The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858) and The Professor of the Breakfast-Table (1860). Other works include the poem “The Chambered Nautilus” and the novel Elsie Venner (1861). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., is his son.

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Oliver O. Howard

(born Nov. 8, 1830, Leeds, Maine, U.S.—died Oct. 26, 1909, Burlington, Vt.) U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the American Civil War as a major general of Maine volunteers, fighting at Bull Run, Antietam, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. He commanded the Army of the Tennessee (1864) and marched with William T. Sherman through Georgia. During Reconstruction he was named commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. He helped found Howard University (1867), which was named in his honour, and served as its president (1869–74). He resigned to return to military service, fighting against the Indians (1877) and later serving as superintendent at West Point (1880–82).

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(born May 18, 1850, London, Eng.—died Feb. 3, 1925, Torquay, Devon) English physicist. In 1902 he predicted the presence of the ionosphere. Since Arthur Kennelly (1861–1939) had made a similar prediction, the ionosphere was long known as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. Heaviside's work on telephone theory made long-distance service practical. In his Electromagnetic Theory (1893–1912) he postulated that an electric charge would increase in mass as its velocity increased, anticipating one aspect of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. He also developed the system of mathematical transforms known as Heaviside calculus.

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(born Aug. 20, 1785, South Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1819, at sea) U.S. naval officer. The older brother of Matthew Perry, he entered the navy in 1799 and served in the West Indies and the Mediterranean. In 1813 he was ordered to Erie, Pa., to assemble a naval squadron to challenge British control of the Great Lakes in the War of 1812. With 10 small ships, he engaged six British warships in Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). After his flagship was disabled, he was rowed to the Niagara, from which he won the battle by sailing directly into the British line, firing broadside. In reporting the British surrender he wrote, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

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Oliver Goldsmith, oil painting from the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1770; in the National elipsis

(born Nov. 10, 1730, Kilkenny West, County Westmeath, Ire.—died April 4, 1774, London, Eng.) Irish-born British essayist, poet, novelist, and dramatist. Goldsmith attended Trinity College in Dublin before studying medicine in Edinburgh. Settling in London, he began writing essays, some of which were collected in The Citizen of the World (1762). In 1764 he became an original member of Samuel Johnson's famous Club. He won a reputation as a poet with The Traveller (1764), confirmed by his famous pastoral elegy The Deserted Village (1770). The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) revealed his skill as a novelist. The charming farce She Stoops to Conquer (1773) was his most effective play. Noted for his exceptionally graceful, lively style, Goldsmith was a friend of many literary lights of his day, who agreed that he was one of the oddest personalities of his time.

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(born Sept. 13, 1755, near Newport, Del.—died April 15, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. inventor. Evans began early to apply himself to industrial problems. He invented an improved carding device for use in the newly mechanized production of textiles. In 1784 he built a flour mill, for which he created the first continuous production line in any industry: all movement was automatic, power being supplied by waterwheels, and grain was passed by conveyors and chutes through the stages of milling and refining to emerge as finished flour. His high-pressure steam engine (patented 1790) deserves to share the credit for the invention often given solely to Richard Trevithick. His Amphibious Digger (1805), a steam-engine scow that could run on both land and water, was the first powered road vehicle to operate in the U.S. His Mars Iron Works (founded 1806) made more than 100 steam engines for use with screw presses for processing cotton, tobacco, and paper.

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(born April 29, 1745, Windsor, Conn.—died Nov. 26, 1807, Windsor) U.S. politician, diplomat, and jurist. He served in the Continental Congress (1777–83) and coauthored the Connecticut Compromise (1787), which resolved the issue of representation in Congress. In 1789 he became one of Connecticut's first U.S. senators. He was the chief author of the Judiciary Act (1789), which established the federal court system. He was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1796; ill health forced his resignation in 1800.

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Oliver Cromwell, painting by Robert Walker; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born April 25, 1599, Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 1658, London) English soldier and statesman, lord protector of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1653–58). He was elected to Parliament in 1628, but Charles I dissolved that Parliament in 1629 and did not call another for 11 years. In 1640 Cromwell was elected to the Short and the Long Parliament. When differences between Charles and Parliament erupted into the English Civil Wars, Cromwell became one of the leading generals on the Parliamentary side, winning many notable victories, including the Battles of Marston Moor and Naseby. He was among those who brought the king to trial and signed his death warrant. After the British Isles were named the Commonwealth, he served as the first chairman of the Council of State. In the next few years he fought against the Royalists in Ireland and Scotland and suppressed a mutiny inspired by the Levelers. When Charles II advanced into England, Cromwell destroyed his army at Worcester (1651), the battle that ended the civil wars. As lord protector, Cromwell raised his country's status once more to that of a leading European power and concluded the Anglo-Dutch War. Though a devout Calvinist, he pursued policies of religious toleration. He refused the h1 of king offered to him by Parliament in 1657. After his death he was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell.

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orig. Joseph Oliver

(born May 11, 1885, Abend, La., U.S.—died April 8, 1938, Savannah, Ga.) U.S. jazz cornetist and bandleader. Oliver grew up in New Orleans and established himself as the city's preeminent cornetist, coleading a band with trombonist Kid Ory (1886–1973) before moving to Chicago in 1918. In 1922 Oliver hired his New Orleans protégé Louis Armstrong to join him in Chicago in his Creole Jazz Band. Their recordings together, including “Dipper Mouth Blues,” are jazz classics.

Learn more about Oliver, King with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Oliver O. Howard

(born Nov. 8, 1830, Leeds, Maine, U.S.—died Oct. 26, 1909, Burlington, Vt.) U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the American Civil War as a major general of Maine volunteers, fighting at Bull Run, Antietam, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. He commanded the Army of the Tennessee (1864) and marched with William T. Sherman through Georgia. During Reconstruction he was named commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. He helped found Howard University (1867), which was named in his honour, and served as its president (1869–74). He resigned to return to military service, fighting against the Indians (1877) and later serving as superintendent at West Point (1880–82).

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(born Aug. 29, 1809, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1894, Cambridge) U.S. physician, poet, and humourist. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1847 and later became dean of its medical school. He won national acclaim with his poem “Old Ironsides” (1830). From 1857 he published his “Breakfast-Table” essays in The Atlantic Monthly, later republished in such collections as The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858) and The Professor of the Breakfast-Table (1860). Other works include the poem “The Chambered Nautilus” and the novel Elsie Venner (1861). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., is his son.

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(born May 18, 1850, London, Eng.—died Feb. 3, 1925, Torquay, Devon) English physicist. In 1902 he predicted the presence of the ionosphere. Since Arthur Kennelly (1861–1939) had made a similar prediction, the ionosphere was long known as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. Heaviside's work on telephone theory made long-distance service practical. In his Electromagnetic Theory (1893–1912) he postulated that an electric charge would increase in mass as its velocity increased, anticipating one aspect of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. He also developed the system of mathematical transforms known as Heaviside calculus.

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Oliver Goldsmith, oil painting from the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1770; in the National elipsis

(born Nov. 10, 1730, Kilkenny West, County Westmeath, Ire.—died April 4, 1774, London, Eng.) Irish-born British essayist, poet, novelist, and dramatist. Goldsmith attended Trinity College in Dublin before studying medicine in Edinburgh. Settling in London, he began writing essays, some of which were collected in The Citizen of the World (1762). In 1764 he became an original member of Samuel Johnson's famous Club. He won a reputation as a poet with The Traveller (1764), confirmed by his famous pastoral elegy The Deserted Village (1770). The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) revealed his skill as a novelist. The charming farce She Stoops to Conquer (1773) was his most effective play. Noted for his exceptionally graceful, lively style, Goldsmith was a friend of many literary lights of his day, who agreed that he was one of the oddest personalities of his time.

Learn more about Goldsmith, Oliver with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 13, 1755, near Newport, Del.—died April 15, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. inventor. Evans began early to apply himself to industrial problems. He invented an improved carding device for use in the newly mechanized production of textiles. In 1784 he built a flour mill, for which he created the first continuous production line in any industry: all movement was automatic, power being supplied by waterwheels, and grain was passed by conveyors and chutes through the stages of milling and refining to emerge as finished flour. His high-pressure steam engine (patented 1790) deserves to share the credit for the invention often given solely to Richard Trevithick. His Amphibious Digger (1805), a steam-engine scow that could run on both land and water, was the first powered road vehicle to operate in the U.S. His Mars Iron Works (founded 1806) made more than 100 steam engines for use with screw presses for processing cotton, tobacco, and paper.

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(born April 29, 1745, Windsor, Conn.—died Nov. 26, 1807, Windsor) U.S. politician, diplomat, and jurist. He served in the Continental Congress (1777–83) and coauthored the Connecticut Compromise (1787), which resolved the issue of representation in Congress. In 1789 he became one of Connecticut's first U.S. senators. He was the chief author of the Judiciary Act (1789), which established the federal court system. He was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1796; ill health forced his resignation in 1800.

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(born May 10, 1902, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.—died June 22, 1965, Hollywood, Calif.) U.S. film producer. He trained with his father, a movie executive, before moving to Hollywood in 1926. Working for MGM, RKO, and other studios, he produced films such as Dinner at Eight (1933), King Kong (1933), David Copperfield (1935), and A Tale of Two Cities (1935). He formed his own company, Selznick International, in 1936 and produced hits such as A Star Is Born (1937). He was essential to the enormous success of Gone with the Wind (1939), overseeing its entire production with detailed memos about every aspect of the movie. He brought Alfred Hitchcock to the U.S. and produced Rebecca (1940) and Spellbound (1945). He also produced Duel in the Sun (1946), The Third Man (1949), and A Farewell to Arms (1957), which starred his second wife, Jennifer Jones.

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Oliver Cromwell, painting by Robert Walker; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born April 25, 1599, Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 1658, London) English soldier and statesman, lord protector of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1653–58). He was elected to Parliament in 1628, but Charles I dissolved that Parliament in 1629 and did not call another for 11 years. In 1640 Cromwell was elected to the Short and the Long Parliament. When differences between Charles and Parliament erupted into the English Civil Wars, Cromwell became one of the leading generals on the Parliamentary side, winning many notable victories, including the Battles of Marston Moor and Naseby. He was among those who brought the king to trial and signed his death warrant. After the British Isles were named the Commonwealth, he served as the first chairman of the Council of State. In the next few years he fought against the Royalists in Ireland and Scotland and suppressed a mutiny inspired by the Levelers. When Charles II advanced into England, Cromwell destroyed his army at Worcester (1651), the battle that ended the civil wars. As lord protector, Cromwell raised his country's status once more to that of a leading European power and concluded the Anglo-Dutch War. Though a devout Calvinist, he pursued policies of religious toleration. He refused the h1 of king offered to him by Parliament in 1657. After his death he was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell.

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(born Dec. 18, 1912, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died July 4, 2002, Washington, D.C.) U.S. pilot and administrator, the first African American general in the U.S. Air Force. He graduated from West Point and in 1941 was admitted to the Army Air Corps. He organized the 99th Fighter Squadron, the first all-black air unit, and in 1943 he organized and commanded the Tuskegee Airmen. He flew 60 combat missions. In 1948 Davis helped plan the desegregation of the Air Force, and he later commanded a fighter wing in the Korean War. After retiring as lieutenant general in 1970, he was named director of civil aviation security in the U.S. Department of Transportation (1971–75). In 1998 he was awarded his fourth general's star, attaining the highest order in the U.S. military.

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