Definitions

oligogene

Cystiscus

Cystiscus is a taxonomic genus of minute sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks or micromollusks.

This genus was placed in the family Cystiscidae by Coovert and Coovert, 1995. Previously the genus was in the family Marginellidae, where it is still placed by many other malacologists.

Diagnosis

Shell minute to small, white, hyaline; spire immersed to low; lip thickened, smooth or weakly denticulate; external varix absent; siphonal notch absent; posterior notch absent; lacking collabral parietal callus ridge; columella multiplicate, with combined usually 2 to 8 plications plus parietal lirae, first plication usually strong and raised. Mantle smooth, at least partially extending over external shell surface.

Type species

Cystiscus capensis Stimpson, 1865

Shell description

Shell minute to small (adult length 1-6 mm). Color white, hyaline; surface smooth, glossy. Shape usually elliptic, obovate, or subtriangular; weakly shouldered. Spire completely immersed to low. Aperture narrow to broad, usually wider anteriorly. Lip slightly to distinctly thickened, flared posteriorly in some species, smooth on inside edge to weakly denticulate, lacking lirae, external varix absent. Shell lacking a siphonal notch and posterior notch. Shell with weak parietal callus wash or weak parietal callus deposits in some species, but lacking collabral parietal callus ridge. Columella multiplicate, with combined total 2 to 8 plications plus parietal lirae, rarely to 17 in which the posteriormost are denticles; one species with only 1 plication. Plications usually occupying less than half the length of the aperture, but most of the aperture in some. Plications excavated just inside aperture in a few species, usually evenly rounded, first plication usually raised and very strong. Shell with cystiscid internal whorls.

Animal anatomy

Internal: Unknown
External: Animal with eyes at side of head, usually on lateral swelling; mantle smooth, at least partially extending onto external shell surface, in some species nearly covering shell; foot relatively narrow, about as wide as shell length; head and mantle usually uniformly colored, often bright red, orange, or yellow, or brown, or black, internal mantle color pattern often showing through translucent shell.
Radula: Uniserial, ribbon long, narrow, composed of 80-209 plates. Rachidian plates overlapping, narrow, moderately to strong arched, with 6-14 sharp cusps on posterior edge, the central cusp usually the strongest. Anterior edge of rachidian plate strongly concave, resulting in U- or V-shapped plates.

Habitat

Intertidal to 370 m.

Fossil record

Eocene of France and Alabama, upper Oligogene and Miocene of W, Atlantic, to Recent.

Remarks

The two halves of the head are capable of closing together at will, thus appearing unsplit. The long siphon usually distinguishes this group from Gibberula. The shell of Persicula is usually patterned, often has a distinct external varix, and the spire is usually immersed. These conchological features serve to separate the two groups.

Species

  • Cystiscus alternans Pritchard & Gatliff, 1899
  • Cystiscus angasi Crosse, 1870
  • Cystiscus aphanacme (Tomlin, 1918)
  • Cystiscus bucca Tomlin, 1916
  • Cystiscus capensis Stimpson, 1865 T
  • Cystiscus connectans May, 1911
  • Cystiscus cratericula Tate & May, 1900
  • Cystiscus cymbalum Tate, 1878
  • Cystiscus flindersi Pritchard & Gatliff, 1899
  • Cystiscus freycineti May, 1915
  • Cystiscus goubini Bavay, 1922
  • Cystiscus halli Pritchard & Gatliff, 1899
  • Cystiscus huna Kay, 1979
  • Cystiscus incerta May, 1919
  • Cystiscus indiscreta May, 1911
  • Cystiscus japonicus (Nomura & Hatai, 1940)
  • Cystiscus jucundus (Turton, 1932)
  • Cystiscus melwardi Laseron, 1957
  • Cystiscus minusculus Lussi & Smith, 1998
  • Cystiscus minutissima Tenison Woods, 1876
  • Cystiscus obesula May, 1919
  • Cystiscus ocellus (Dall, 1927)
  • Cystiscus opima Laseron, 1957
  • Cystiscus peelae Lussi & Smith, 1998
  • Cystiscus problematica Gatliff & Gabriel, 1916
  • Cystiscus pseustes (E.A.Smith, 1904)
  • Cystiscus sandwicensis (Pease, 1860)
  • Cystiscus subauriculata May, 1916
  • Cystiscus thouinensis May, 1916
  • Cystiscus tomlini Bavay, 1917
  • Cystiscus tomliniana May, 1917
  • Cystiscus vidae Dell, 1956

References

  • 2005. Classification and Nomenclator of Gastropod Families. Malacologia 47(1-2):1-397.

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