George Long was the oldest of nine children born to Huey Pierce "Hugh" Long, Sr. (1852-1937), and the former Caledonia Palestine Tison (1860-1913). He was born and reared in a log cabin in tiny Tunica in West Feliciana Parish near Baton Rouge. When the child was five years of age, the Longs moved to Winnfield in Winn Parish some fifty miles north of Alexandria. He attended the Winnfield public schools. Long attended what was then called "Mount Lebanon College," now the conservative Baptist-affiliated Louisiana College in Pineville in Rapides Parish. Long thereafter taught school for a time in Winn and Grant parishes.
Long was a Democratic member of the Oklahoma State House of Representatives from 1920-1922. He also studied law and was admitted to the Oklahoma bar in 1923. William J. "Bill" Dodd, in his memoirs entitled Peapatch Politics: The Earl Long Era in Louisiana Politics, said that "Doc "got into some kind of shady deal while in the Oklahoma legislature and had to resign or face a trial."
In 1935, Long relocated to Monroe and practiced dentistry there until 1940. In 1948, he was appointed by his brother, Governor Earl Kemp Long, as superintendent of the Louisiana Colony and Training School in Pineville, a facility for the mentally retarded. He also practiced dentistry in Pineville. In 1950, he was demoted from superintendent to institutional inspector at the training school.
In 1948 and again in 1950, he unsuccessfully contested his party's nomination for the Eighth District U.S. House seat. He lost to Asa Leonard Allen (1891-1969), brother of former Governor O.K. Allen, a Long protege. Leonard Allen continued to have the support of Earl Long. The Long brothers frequently quarreled among themselves and would support the opponents of each other when they saw it in their interests to do so. Doc Long continued to work on Earl Long's teeth throughout their political estrangements. Long was the founder and director of the Dr. George S. Long Corporation.
In 1952, Doc Long just wore down Allen, as was the forte of the Longs whenever they encountered an obstacle to their ambitions, and convinced the congressman not to seek renomination but to yield to Long. George Long was hence elected in "Long country" in 1952, 1954, and 1956. In Congress, he was known for his work on the Veterans Affairs Committee, and he helped to organize the prayer room off the Capitol rotunda.
Doc Long served until his death in the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, midway in his third term. He was a Baptist, Mason, Shriner, and member of the Kiwanis Club. He is buried in Greenwood Memorial Park in Pineville.
"Dr. Long, both a lawyer and a dentist, had been run out of Louisiana by Huey, or so Earl told me. . . . Earl seemed to like Doc better than he liked his other brothers, but Earl did not respect his honesty or judgment."
Once the commissioner of administrator, J.H. Rester, showed Dodd, who was acting governor while Earl Long was out of state, that George Long "had purchased building materials and charged them to the state, yet had used the materials to construct a private dwelling for himself. He had a lot of other stuff that he said showed Dr. Long to be a crook and thief. I didn't look very carefully at the alleged evidence, but I asked Rester why he was bringing it to me. He said it was his responsbilitlity but he wanted me to advise him what to do. . . I could see the old rascal didn't like Dr. Long or me; he thought he would get me to throw Dr. Long to the wolves, and then Earl would get on me.
"I told Rester than I could not advise him on how to operate his office or handle the alleged wrongdoing of Dr. Long. I did say that he should remember that Dr. Long was Earl's brother and that a scandal would reflect discredit upon the governor. I told him to use his own judgement, but to get ready for a quick trip to the unemployed if he made a lot of charges, and they backfired."
Dodd said that he made his remarks in front of Albert A. Fredericks of Natchitoches, Earl's executive assistant and a state senator from Natchitoches and Red River parishes from 1932-1948. "Fredericks said that if he were in Rester's shoes and had all that crap Rester claimed was in the folder, he would find a nice deep dark, well-hidden trash barrel, and throw the file in the barrel, and accidentally drop in a match. So far as I know, Rester must have found the barrel, for after he left my office, I never heard any more about Dr. Long using state materials on his private home."
Dodd also noted that he agreed to support Doc Long in a race against Leonard Allen for Congress if George would back Dodd for governor. Dodd recalled that when he "grabbed the paper to see what nice things Dodd had said in endorsing me and read [instead] that he had endorsed [official Long choice Carlos] Spaht because I was too young and too wild to be trusted in the governor's office. Later, he laughed about it."
William J. "Bill" Dodd, Peapatch Politics: The Earl Long Era in Louisiana Politics, Baton Rouge: Claitor's Publishing, 1991
Glenn R. Conrad, "George S. Long," A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, 1988, p. 518