Definitions

Occupational therapist

Occupational therapist

An occupational therapist (OT) is a health professional who is trained in the practice of occupational therapy. The role of an occupational therapist is to work with a client to help them achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of "purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve functional outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability and which develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of independence.. A practical definition for OT can also be illustrated with the use of models such as the Occupational Performance Model (Australia), known as the OPM(A). At the core of this approach is the ideology that occupational therapists are concerned with the occupations of people and how these contribute to health. Specifically it is a person’s occupational performance that influences their health and personal satisfaction of their individual needs. The OPM(A) is constructed on the following definition of Occupational Performance:
"The ability to perceive, desire, recall, plan and carry out roles, routines, tasks and sub-tasks for the purpose of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest in response to demands of the internal and/or external environment.

It can be seen that occupational performance, the roles it creates for a client, and the areas it can encompass are so far-reaching that an occupational therapist can work with a wide range of clients of various limitations who are being cared for in an array of settings.

In summary, Occupational Therapy is about helping people do the day-to-day tasks that “occupy” their time, sustain themselves, and enable them to contribute to the wider community. Its these opportunities to “do” that occupational therapy provides that prove important and meaningful to the health of people.

What occupational therapists do

Occupational therapists(OTs) help people of all ages to improve their ability to perform tasks in their daily living and working environments. They work with individuals who have conditions that are mentally, physically, developmentally, socially or emotionally disabling. They also help them to develop, recover, or maintain daily living and work skills. Occupational therapists help clients not only to improve their basic motor functions and reasoning abilities, but also to compensate for permanent loss of function. Their goal is to help clients have independent, productive, and satisfying lives.

Occupational therapists assist clients in performing activities of all types, ranging from using a computer to caring for daily needs such as dressing, cooking, and eating. Physical exercises may be used to increase strength and dexterity, while other activities may be chosen to improve visual acuity and the ability to discern patterns. For example, a client with short-term memory loss might be encouraged to make lists to aid recall, and a person with coordination problems might be assigned exercises to improve hand-eye coordination. Occupational therapists also use computer programs to help clients improve decisionmaking, abstract-reasoning, problem-solving, and perceptual skills, as well as memory, sequencing, and coordination—all of which are important for independent living.

Therapists instruct those with permanent disabilities, such as spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, or muscular dystrophy, in the use of adaptive equipment, including wheelchairs, orthotics, and aids for eating and dressing. They also design or make special equipment needed at home or at work. Therapists develop computer-aided adaptive equipment and teach clients with severe limitations how to use that equipment in order to communicate better and control various aspects of their environment.

Some occupational therapists treat individuals whose ability to function in a work environment has been impaired. These practitioners arrange employment, evaluate the work environment, plan work activities, and assess the client’s progress. Therapists also may collaborate with the client and the employer to modify the work environment so that the work can be successfully completed.

Occupational therapists may work exclusively with individuals in a particular age group or with particular disabilities. In schools, for example, they evaluate children’s abilities, recommend and provide therapy, modify classroom equipment, and help children participate as fully as possible in school programs and activities. A therapist may work with children individually, lead small groups in the classroom, consult with a teacher, or serve on a curriculum or other administrative committee. Early intervention therapy services are provided to infants and toddlers who have, or at the risking of having, developmental delays. Specific therapies may include facilitating the use of the hands, promoting skills for listening and following directions, fostering social play skills, or teaching dressing and grooming skills.

Occupational therapy also is beneficial to the elderly population. Therapists help the elderly lead more productive, active, and independent lives through a variety of methods, including the use of adaptive equipment. Therapists with specialized training in driver rehabilitation assess an individual’s ability to drive using both clinical and on-the-road tests. The evaluations allow the therapist to make recommendations for adaptive equipment, training to prolong driving independence, and alternative transportation options. Occupational therapists also work with the client to asses the home for hazards and to identify environmental factors that contribute to falls.

Occupational therapists in mental health settings treat individuals who are mentally ill, mentally retarded, or emotionally disturbed. To treat these problems, therapists choose activities that help people learn to engage in and cope with daily life. Activities include time management skills, budgeting, shopping, homemaking, and the use of public transportation. Occupational therapists also may work with individuals who are dealing with alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, eating disorders, or stress-related disorders.

Assessing and recording a client’s activities and progress is an important part of an occupational therapist’s job. Accurate records are essential for evaluating clients, for billing, and for reporting to physicians and other health care providers.

Footnotes

References

  • AOTA Inc. (1994). Policy 5.3.1: Definition of occupational therapy practice for state regulation. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), 48(11), 1072-1073.
  • Chapparo, C., & Ranka, J. (1997a). Occupational Performance Model (Australia): Definition of terms [Electronic Version], 58-60. Retrieved 5 April 2006 from http://www.occupationalperformance.com/index.php/au/home/definitions.
  • Chapparo, C., & Ranka, J. (1997b). Using the OPM(A) to guide practice and research [Electronic Version]. Retrieved 10 April 2006 from http://www.occupationalperformance.com/index.php/au/home/practice_guide.
  • Crepeau, E. B., Cohn, E. S., & Schell, B. A. B. (2003). Occupational Therapy practice today. In E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn & B. A. B. Schell (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (10th ed., pp. 27-30). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Crossman, A. R., & Neary, D. (2000). Neuroanatomy : an illustrated colour text (2nd ed.). Edinburgh ; New York: Churchill Livingstone.
  • Punwar, A. J. (2000). Defining Occupational Therapy. In A. J. Punwar & S. M. Peloquin (Eds.), Occupational therapy : Principles and practice (3rd ed., pp. 3-6). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Schwartz, K. B. (2003). The history of occupational therapy. In E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn & B. A. B. Schell (Eds.), Willard & Spackman's occupational therapy (10th ed., pp. 5-13). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Occupational Therapists. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor,Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2004-05 Edition, Bulletin 2570. Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

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