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1900 Summer Olympics

The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1900 in Paris, France. No opening or closing ceremonies were held but competitions began on May 14 and ended on October 28. The Games were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair. Over a thousand competitors took part in 19 different sports. Women took part in the games for the first time and Charlotte Cooper became the first female Olympic champion. The decision to hold competitions on a Sunday brought protests from many American athletes, who travelled as representatives of their colleges and were expected to withdraw rather than compete on their religious day of rest.

Most of the winners in 1900 did not receive medals, but were given cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing and Albert Robert Ayat, who won the épée for amateurs and masters, was awarded a prize of 3000 francs.

Some unusual events were contested for the first and only time in the history of the Games. The equestrian high and long jumps, swimming obstacle race, two-day cricket and live pigeon shooting being foremost among them.

Election of the host city

At the Sorbonne conference of 1895, Baron de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games should take place in 1900 in Paris. The delegates to the conference were unwilling to wait six years and lobbied to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was made to hold the first Olympic games in 1896 in Athens and that Paris would hold the second celebration instead. Despite Greek efforts to keep the Games in their country, the International Olympic Committee kept to their decision and instead offered that a separate Panhellenic Games be held in Athens in the two year intervals between the regular Olympics. Financial considerations also weighed against the permanent hosting of the Games in Greece.

Organization

The 1900 Games were held as part of the 1900 Exposition Universelle. The Baron de Coubertin believed that this would help public awareness of the Olympics and submitted elaborate plans to rebuild the ancient site of Olympia, complete with statues, temples, stadia and gymnasia. The director of the Exposition Universelle, Alfred Picard, thought sport a "useless and absurd activity" and after thanking de Coubertin for his plans, filed them away and nothing more came of it.

A committee was formed for the organization of the Games, consisiting of some of the more able sports administrators of the day and a provisional program was drawn up. Sports to be included at the games were track and field athletics, swimming, wrestling, gymnastics and fencing, French and British boxing, river and ocean yacht racing, cycling, golf, life-saving and archery, weightlifting, rowing, diving and water polo.

British and Irish sports associations announced a desire to compete, as did a number of powerful American universities and sports clubs. Competitors from Russia and Australia also confirmed their intentions to travel to Paris.

On November 9, 1898 the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques (USFSA) put out an announcement that it would have sole right to any organised sport held during the World's Fair. It was an empty threat but Viscount Charles de La Rochefoucauld, the nominated head of the organizing committee, stepped down rather than be embroiled in the political battle. The Baron de Coubertin, who was also secretary-general of the USFSA, was urged to withdraw from active involvement in the running of the Games and did so, only to comment later, "I surrendered - and was incorrect in doing so."

The IOC ceded control of the Games to a new committee which was to oversee every sporting activity connected to the 1900 Exposition Universelle. Alfred Picard appointed Daniel Merillon, the head of the French Shooting Association as president of this organization in February 1899. Merillon proceeded to publish an entirely different schedule of events ,with the result that many of those that had made plans to compete in concordance with the original program withdrew, and refused to deal with the new committee.

Between May and October 1900, the new organizing committee held an enormous number of sporting activities alongside the Paris Exposition. The sporting events rarely used the term of "Olympic". Indeed the term "Olympic Games" was replaced by "Concours Internationaux d'exercises physiques et de sport" in the official report of the sporting events of the 1900 Exposition Universelle. The press reported competitions variously as "International Championships", "International Games", "Paris Championships", "World Championships" and "Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition".

De Coubertin commented later to friends: "It's a miracle that the Olympic Movement survived that celebration".

Highlights

  • Alvin Kraenzlein won the 60 metres (he was one of two people to win this event), the 110 metres, the 220 metre hurdles, and the long jump events; as of 2005, these four individual gold medals are still a record for a track and field athlete. For his victory in the long jump, he was allegedly punched in the face by his rival Meyer Prinstein, who was prevented from competing in the final by officials of Syracuse University, because it was scheduled for a Sunday.
  • Charlotte Cooper was the first woman to become Olympic champion after winning the women's singles tennis competition. She later went on to win the mixed doubles tournament.
  • Three marathon runners from the United States contested the result saying the French runners who got first and second places took a short cut, and the proof was they were the only contestants not spattered with mud.
  • In the coxed pairs and eights events in rowing, crews replaced adult coxswain with children. The identities and ages of these boys were not recorded but they are believed to have been amongst the youngest of all Olympic competitors.

Sports

20 disciplines, comprising 19 sports, were part of the Olympic program in Paris. Weightlifting and wrestling had been dropped since the 1896 Summer Olympics, while 13 new sports were added. Swimming and water polo were considered to be two disciplines within a single sport of aquatics in the Olympic context.

Sport by sport overview

The standard of competition at the Games was variable. Despite a poor quality track, a strong contingent of top-class American collegiate athletes ensured the track and field competitions were of the highest quality. The tennis gold medallists were all former Wimbledon champions, swimming and fencing events were of a good standard and even polo, a minority sport for the social elite, was well represented by some of the best players in the game. Other sports were noticeably weak in both quality and depth. Only athletics, swimming and fencing had competitors from more than ten nations.

Archery

The history of the archery competition at the 1900 Olympics is extremely confusing. The IOC currently list six events as having full Olympic status but a case could be made that as many as eight other events as equally as deserving to be considered as part of official Olympic history. About 150 archers competed in these six official events but as many as 5,000 were involved in archery competition in conjunction with 1900 World's Fair. Belgian Hubert van Innis took two gold medals and one silver and would add to his tally twenty years later in Antwerp.

Athletics

The track and field events were held at the home of the Racing Club de France at the Croix-Catalan on the Bois de Boulogne. No track was laid but races took place on an uneven field of grass littered with trees. Additional events were held for professionals and a series of handicap races also took place. These are not considered official Olympic events.

The sprints

In the seven events contested over 400 metres or less, the United States took 13 out of a possible 21 medals. Athletes from Columbia University, Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania all won gold medals. Indeed, two would-be dentists from the University of Pennsylvania were amongst the stars of the Games. Alvin Kraenzlein won 4 individual gold medals, a feat that has never repeated, while John Tewksbury took five medals including two golds. The "hurdles" in the 400 m hurdle race were -long telegraph poles arranged on the track and the race, uniquely in Olympic competition, had a water jump on the final straight.

Middle and long distance races

United States dominance in sprinting was matched in the longer track races by Great Britain. Only George Orton, who won Canada's first Olympic title in the shorter of the two steeplechases, ruined a perfect record for the British. Orton won his title less than an hour after placing third in the 400 m hurdles.

The Marathon

The most contentious of all the events in these Games began and ended on the Bois de Bolougne. Intended to follow the track of the old city wall, the course was poorly marked out and runners often got lost and had to double back on themselves before continuing. On some parts of the course, runners had to contend with distractions from cars, bicycles pedestrians and animals. Arthur Newton of the United States finished fifth but stated he had not been passed by any other runner during the race. Another American, Richard Grant, claimed he was run down by a cyclist as he made ground on the leaders. French honour seemed to be have satisfied when Michel Theato crossed the finish line and a military band struck up La Marseillaise but modern research has discovered that Theato was born in Luxembourg and maintained Luxembourgian citizenship throughout his life.

Field events

The Hungarian discus thrower Rudolf Bauer was only non-American crowned as Olympic Champion. American domination was even greater in the field events than the track events with outstanding performances coming from Ray Ewry and Irving Baxter. Ewry started his Olympic career with a sweep of the three standing jumps whilst Baxter finished second to Ewry three times and won both the regular high jump and pole vault

Basque pelota

The chistera form of the game was played at this, the sport's only appearance at full Olympic level. Two pairs entered and the Spanish partnerships of Amezola and Villota became their nations' first Olympic champions. The mano form of the game and a chistera tournament for professional players were contested unofficially.

Cricket

After the withdrawal of teams from the Netherlands and Belgium, only two teams played in the cricket tournament. A team made up of players from the Albion Cricket Club and the Standard Athletic Club, two Paris clubs consisting almost exclusively of British expatriates, played a touring team from the south-west of England. The Devon and Somerset Wanderers were no more than a team of competent club cricketers and only Montagu Toller and Alfred Bowerman were deemed good enough to play at county level for Somerset. The game was played before a small crowd at the Vélodrome de Vincennes. An emphatic second innings bowling performance from Toller captured victory for the visitors as time appeared to being running out for them. If the French had held out for five more minutes the game would have declared a draw. Knowledge of the game would have been lost but for the forethought of John Symes, a member of the victorious team, who kept a scorecard in his own writing.

Croquet

The croquet tournament was notable as it marked the first appearance of women at Olympic level. Madame Despres, Madame Filleaul Brohy and Mademoiselle Ohnier were eliminated in the first round of competition along with Marcel Haentjens of Belgium, the only entrant from outside France. A single paying spectator attended the tournament, an elderly English gentleman who travelled from Nice for the early stages. An unofficial two-ball handicap competition was also held.

Cycling

The home nation won five out of the six medals available. A number of unofficial events were held for both amateurs and professionals.

Equestrian

Equestrian sport made its debut at the Olympic Games with three events being held. The Italian rider Giovanni Giorgio Trissino won a gold and a silver. He narrowly missed making Olympic history by winning two medals in the same event. Competing with two different horses in the high jump, he jointly won the gold medal and finished in 4th place on his second horse.

Fencing

Nineteen nations were represented in the fencing competition, which was held in a field near the cutlery exhibit at the 1900 World's Fair. French fencers dominated the proceedings but both Cuba and Italy also took titles. The early rounds of the foil competitions were judged on style rather than the actual result of the contest. This meant that some fencers were eliminated without losing a contest whilst others were defeated and still progressed to the next rounds.

Football

The first football champions at the Olympics were the London amateurs of Upton Park F.C. A crowd of around 500 spectators saw them defeat their French rivals.

Golf

Margaret Ives Abbott , a student of art from Chicago, played in and won a nine hole golf tournament on an October Tuesday in Paris. She died in 1955 without being aware that the tournament was part of the Olympic Games and she had become America's first ever female Olympic champion.

Gymnastics

135 gymnasts took part in a competition that involved elements from track and field and weightlifting as well as gymnastic disciplines

Polo

Eight separate tournaments were held in 1900 as part of the 1900 World's Fair. Only the Grand Prix Internationale de l'Exposition is counted as an official medal event. Entries were from clubs rather than countries and the winning Foxhunters club comprised English, Irish and American players.

Mexico won its first medal in this sport. Bronze by Guillermo Hayden Wright, Eustaquio de Escandón y Barrón, Pablo de Escandón y Barrón and Manuel de Villavieja Escandón y Barrón

Rowing

Competitions were held on the River Seine. The coxed fours descended into farce when officials changed the qualifying criteria for the final several times. The first final was held without any of the original qualifiers, who had withdrawn as a protest against the decision to run six boats on a course laid out for only four. The officials then decided to run another "final" for the boycotting crews. Both events are considered official Olympic competitions. In a number of events crews saw the advantage of having ultra-lightweight coxswain and recruited local boys for the period of the Games. Most of these remain a mystery but some could have been under ten years old

Rugby union

Three teams competed in the Rugby tournament. A French representative team defeated a team from the German city of Frankfurt and Moseley Wanderers from England. The Moseley team had played a full game of rugby in England the day before they made the journey to Paris. They arrived in the morning, played the match in the afternoon and were back in their home country by the next morning. The proposed game between the British and German sides was cancelled and both are credited as silver medallists. The Franco-Haitian centre Constantin Henriquez de Zubiera become the first black gold medallist. Three months earlier he had competed in the tug of war.

Sailing

The 1900 sailing regatta differs from every other Olympic regatta in a number of ways. In most classes there were two distinct "finals", boats were assigned time handicaps according to their weight within each class and cash prizes were handed out to the winner of each race. The IOC currently recognizes the winner of the first race in each class as Olympic champion except in the case of the 10-20 ton class, which was decided on aggregate time over three races. Races were held at both Meulan and Le Havre and medals shared amongst five nations. France and Great Britain were the most successful of the countries involved. A number of people named as members of medal-winning crews by the IOC have been proved not to have competed; others have their participation seriously questioned by historical research.

Shooting

Switzerland's Konrad Stäheli was the outstanding marksman of the Games, taking a trio of titles and leading his country to the top of the shooting medal table. The medals were shared between six different nations. There is a debate as to whether the live pigeon shooting event was a full Olympic event, Belgian Leon Lunden shot twenty-one birds on his way to the championship. Up to thirty unofficial shooting events were also held.

Swimming

The muddied waters of the Seine hosted the swimming events in 1900. Run with the current, the races produced very fast times by the standards of the day. John Arthur Jarvis of Great Britain, Frederick Lane of Australia and the German Ernst Hoppenberg each won two titles. Lane received a 50-pound bronze statue of a horse as a prize. A couple of unusual events were held. The obstacle race required both swimming underneath and climbing over rows of boats whilst Charles de Venville stayed submerged for over a minute to win the underwater swimming event.

Tennis

A high quality men's tournament saw three past or future Wimbledon champions reach the semi-finals. Lawrence Doherty reached the final when older brother Reggie stepped aside and let his sibling advance to the final. The two refused to play other in what they considered a minor tournament. On the 11th of July a landmark was reached in the history of the Olympic Games. Charlotte Cooper, already three times Wimbledon champion, took both singles and mixed doubles championships to become the first female Olympic champion.

Tug of war

A combined Sweden/Denmark team, made up of three competitors from each country, defeated the French team to win the title. They were left as the only participating teams after the United States were unable to take part as three of their team were involved in the final of the hammer. Edgar Aaybe was a journalist covering the Games for the Danish newspaper Politiken and was asked to join the team when another puller was taken ill. Constantin Henriquez de Zubiera was the first black medallist in the history of the Olympics.

Water polo

Osborne Swimming Club, representing Great Britain were unchallenged in the tournament, scoring 29 goals and conceding only 3 in their 3 matches. In the final, they limited the number of shots on goal to avoid humiliating their opponents. Thomas Burgess of the bronze medal-winning Libellule de Paris team, represented Great Britain in the swimming events.

Olympic status of sports and events

The 1900 games were not governed by a specific Olympic organizing committee, but instead held as an appendage to the 1900 World's Fair. An enormous amount of events were held, though many fall short of the standards later required for Olympic championship status. Decisions as to which Olympic events are termed "official" and which are have "unofficial" or "demonstration" status are usually left to the Olympic organizing committees and/or the IOC. In the absence of any overall authority capable of making an official distinction of this kind, no decision as to the official status of any event was made at the time of the Games. A document from 1912 exists, listing results from the 1900 Games, but the reliability of this paper is questioned by Olympic historians. This document forms the basis of the results of the Paris games in the IOC database.

Unofficial sports

Like all official Olympic events, these were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair, but the IOC does not regard them as fully part of the Olympic Games.

In addition to these 71 schools and 92 military events were also held across a range of sports.

Participating nations

The following 24 nations sent competitors to the 1900 Olympic Games, according to the IOC.

Some sources also list athletes from the following nations as having competed at these Games.

  • (It was named Persia until 1935.)

Medal count

Gold, silver, and bronze medals were retroactively awarded by the International Olympic Committee to reflect later practice of awarding such medals to 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place competitors, respectively. Early Olympic Games, such as the 1900 Summer Olympics, had no set schedule of awards.

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1900 Games.

1 (host nation) 26 41 34 101
2 19 14 14 47
3 15 6 9 30
4 6 3 3 12
5 6 2 1 9
6 5 5 5 15
7 4 2 2 8
8 2 2 0 4
9 2 0 3 5
10 1 3 2 6

See also

References

External links

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